Experts believe that one-third to one-half of all cancers can be prevented.
That's because there are certain things about our lifestyles—our daily habits—that can make us more likely to get cancer. Here are some steps you can take today to help prevent cancer:
- Quit smoking.
- Eat well.
- Stay at a healthy weight.
- Stay active.
- Protect your skin.
- Drink alcohol wisely.
- Practice safer sex.
- Get regular checkups and screenings.
- Consider getting the HPV vaccine if you're age 26 or younger.
- Avoid toxins and other poisons at work and at home.
Your doctor may recommend other things based on your personal health history. For example, taking aspirin to prevent cancer may be a good idea for some people. But taking aspirin can have risks, too. So talk to your doctor about what cancer prevention tips are best for you.
When you quit smoking, you lower your chances of getting many types of cancer. Smoking makes you more likely to get cancers of the lung, bladder, kidneys, pancreas, cervix, mouth, esophagus, and throat.
Quitting is hard, but you can do it with the right amount of information and support. And there are several medicines that work well to help people quit for good. For information, see the topic Quitting Smoking.
And for more help, see:
- Quitting Smoking: Getting Support.
- Quitting Smoking: Coping With Cravings and Withdrawal.
- Quitting Smoking: Should I Use Medicine?
Eating a variety of vegetables, fruits, legumes (for example, peas and beans), fish, poultry, and whole grains helps prevent cancer. Limit the amount of fat in your diet, especially animal fat.
Some scientists think certain supplements might help prevent cancer, but there isn't enough research yet to prove that. If you want to take supplements to prevent cancer, talk to your doctor about what is safe for you to take. Eating healthy foods is still the best way to get the vitamins and minerals your body needs.
For ideas and tips, see:
- Quick Tips: Making Healthy Snacks.
- Quick Tips: Adding Fruits and Vegetables to Your Diet.
- Quick Tips: Making Fast, Healthy Meals.
Stay at a healthy weight
If you are very overweight, your chances of getting some forms of cancer are higher. And people whose extra fat is in the waist area may be at higher risk than people whose extra fat is in the hips or thighs.
Eating a healthy diet and being more active can help you reach a healthy weight. It can be hard to change habits around eating and being active. But you can do it by taking one step at a time. To learn how, see Getting to a Healthy Weight: Lifestyle Changes.
For more help making these changes, see:
- Healthy Eating: Starting a Plan for Change.
- Healthy Eating: Overcoming Barriers to Change.
Being active every day may prevent a number of cancers. And regular activity can help you get to and stay at a healthy weight, which can also help keep you from getting cancer.
Being physically active and getting enough sleep may work together to lower your cancer risk even more than activity alone, especially for women.
If you're not used to being active every day, think about taking small steps to change your habits. For more information, see:
- Fitness: Adding More Activity to Your Life.
- Fitness: Staying Active When You Have Young Children.
- Fitness: Choosing Activities That Are Right for You.
For more ideas and tips, see:
- Activity Ideas.
- Quick Tips: Getting Active at Home.
Protect your skin
Most skin cancer is caused by too much sun. Follow these steps to help prevent skin cancer:
- Stay out of the sun when you can, especially from 10 a.m. to 4
p.m., the hours of peak ultraviolet (UV) exposure.
- If you must go out in the sun, wear protective clothing, like a wide-brimmed hat, a
long-sleeved shirt, and pants.
- On skin that isn't covered by clothing, use a sunscreen that has a
sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 30. Use it
all year, even when it is cloudy. Sunscreens that say "broad-spectrum" can
protect the skin from ultraviolet A and B (UVA and UVB) rays.
- Wear sunglasses that block UV rays.
- Use lip balm or cream that has sun protection factor (SPF) to
protect your lips from getting sunburned or developing cold sores.
- Avoid tanning booths and sunlamps, which emit UV radiation and
can cause skin damage.
For more information, see:
- Skin Cancer: Protecting Your Skin.
Drink alcohol wisely
People who drink more than 2 alcoholic drinks a day—and especially those who drink more than 3 drinks a day—have a slightly higher risk for colon cancer.
If you're a woman, you may help prevent breast cancer by limiting yourself to 1 drink a day. Using alcohol leads to extra estrogen in the
body, which raises your breast cancer risk.
Practice safer sex
Practicing safer sex helps keep you from getting HPV, a sexually transmitted infection that can cause cervical cancer in women. Safer sex includes using condoms and talking to every potential sex partner about his or her sexual history.
Get regular checkups and screenings
Visiting your doctor and dentist for regular checkups is good for your health. Your doctor can schedule regular screenings for various types of cancer, such as such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopy for colon cancer.
Most screenings and checkups are to find cancer early, when it's easier to treat and may even be curable.
For more information, see:
- Colon Cancer: Which Screening Test Should I Have?
If you are age 26 or younger, you can get the HPV shot to protect against the virus that can cause cervical cancer. Three shots are given over 6 months. The series of shots is recommended for girls age 11 or 12 and can be given to females ages 9 to 26.
Males ages 9 through 26 may also get the HPV shot, which may prevent anal cancer.
Avoid toxins and other poisons at work and at home
Living or working in unhealthy places can make you sick. Stay away from certain chemicals and other things in the environment that can increase your chances of getting cancer.
- Asbestos, an insulating material found in some older buildings, can cause tumors, lung cancer, and other diseases.
- Unsafe drinking water from a rural well polluted with pesticides or other poisons from a nearby industrial plant could cause allergies, cancer, or other problems.
- Take care when using cleaning products, paints, solvents, and pesticides. Try not to use them inside the house. If you must use them inside, use a fan to blow strong odors and fumes out of your home. Be aware that paint can release trace gases for months after you apply it. Try to use paint without volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
- Avoid being exposed to benzene, which can cause cancer. Benzene is found in tobacco smoke, stored fuels, paint supplies, and vehicle exhaust inside garages.
- Radon is a radioactive gas that causes cancer. Radon is found in rock, soil, water, some building materials, and natural gas. Studies show that nearly 1 out of every 15 homes in the United States has
unsafe levels of radon.1 The
U.S. Surgeon General and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
recommend that all homes be tested for radon levels. For more information, see the topic Radon.
Health Tools help you make wise health decisions or take action to improve your health.
Decision Points focus on key medical care decisions that are important to many health problems.
Actionsets are designed to help people take an active role in managing a health condition.
- Colorectal Cancer: Which Screening Test Should I Have?
- Quitting Smoking: Should I Use Medicine?
- Fitness: Adding More Activity to Your Life
- Fitness: Choosing Activities That Are Right for You
- Fitness: Staying Active When You Have Young Children
- Healthy Eating: Overcoming Barriers to Change
- Healthy Eating: Starting a Plan for Change
- Quitting Smoking: Coping With Cravings and Withdrawal
- Quitting Smoking: Getting Support
- Skin Cancer: Protecting Your Skin
- Bladder Cancer
- Breast Cancer
- Cervical Cancer
- Colorectal Cancer
- Endometrial (Uterine) Cancer
- Lung Cancer
- Oral Cancer
- Ovarian Cancer
- Prostate Cancer
- Skin Cancer, Melanoma
- Skin Cancer, Nonmelanoma
- Testicular Cancer
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2012). A Citizen's Guide to Radon: The Guide to Protecting Yourself and Your Family From Radon. Available online:http://www.epa.gov/radon/pubs/citguide.html.