Many people have minor eye problems, such as eyestrain, irritated
eyes, or itchy, scaly eyelids (blepharitis ). These problems may be
ongoing (chronic) but usually aren't serious. Home treatment can relieve the
symptoms of many minor eye problems.
See a picture of the
Common eye problems
Common types of eye problems
- Drainage from the eyes or excessive tearing.
- Eyestrain or
- Misaligned eyes or
strabismus (sometimes called cross-eyes).
- Blood in the white of the eye (subconjunctival hemorrhage).
- Eyelid problems.
- Contact lens problems.
- Color blindness.
- Retinal problems, such as
- Red eyes that may be
caused by infection, inflammation, or tumors.
- Macular degeneration.
It is common for the eyes to be irritated or have a
scratchy feeling. Pain is not a common eye problem unless there has been an
injury. It is not unusual for the eyes to be slightly sensitive to light.
But sudden, painful sensitivity to light is a serious problem that may
mean glaucoma or inflammation of the muscles that control the
pupil (iritis) and
should be evaluated by your doctor.
Sudden problems such as new
vision changes, pain in the eye, or increased drainage are often more serious
and need to be evaluated by a doctor. Eye symptoms that are new or that occur
suddenly may be evaluated by an
emergency medicine specialist.
Ongoing (chronic) eye
problems that may be worsening are usually evaluated by an eye doctor (ophthalmologist). A gradual change in your vision or chronic eye problems
- Vision changes. These may include:
- Trouble adjusting your vision when entering a
- Trouble focusing on close or faraway
- Dark spots in the center of your vision
- Lines or edges that appear wavy.
- Eyelid problems, such as a
stye or chalazion (a small, hard
- Discharge or irritation of the eyeball or eyelids, such as
an infection of the inner edge of the lower eyelid (dacryocystitis)
or pinkeye (conjunctivitis).
- Sensitivity to light
- Inability to see well at night (night blindness). A decrease in
night vision may be caused by nearsightedness,
macular degeneration, or conditions that affect the
People often tolerate minor eye irritation and problems for a long
time, until the irritation or problems become bothersome enough to seek care.
People who have skin problems and allergies often have ongoing minor
problems with the skin of their eyelids and allergic irritation of the
As you reach your 40s and 50s, it is common to have some vision
changes and possibly to need glasses. Some of the changes may also cause other
symptoms, like headaches and nausea, that affect your ability to
Some children may have
special risks for eye problems. Vision screening is recommended for infants who
were either born at or before 30 weeks, whose birth weight was below
3.3 lb (1500 g), or who have
serious medical conditions. Most vision problems are noticed first by the
tips for spotting eye problems in your child. The
first screening is recommended about 4 to 7 weeks after birth.1
Check your symptoms to decide if
and when you should see a doctor.
Health Tools help you make wise health decisions or take action to improve your health.
Actionsets are designed to help people take an active role in managing a health condition.
- Eye Problems: Using Eyedrops and Eye Ointment
Home treatment measures may give
you some relief from your eye symptoms.
- Rest your eye.
- Don't rub your
- If you wear contacts, take the contacts out to rest the
- Use cold or warm compresses, whichever feels
flush your eye with cool water.
- Avoid bright lights or use dark
glasses to protect the eye.
- Nonprescription eyedrops, such as
artificial tear solutions, such as Hypo Tears, may be used to moisten
To learn how to use eyedrops and eye ointment, see:
- Eye Problems: Using Eyedrops and Eye Ointment.
For treatment information for these common eye problems, see the topics:
- Objects in the Eye.
- Styes and Chalazia.
Symptoms to watch for during home treatment
Call your doctor if any of the following occur during home
- Vision changes occur, such as blurred vision,
loss of vision, or double vision.
- Pain or drainage does not get better.
- Increased sensitivity to
light (photophobia) develops.
- You have blood in
- Swelling or redness develops around the eye area
- Signs of infection are present.
- Symptoms become more severe or
If you wear contacts, be sure to remove your
contacts when your eye problem starts.
Take good care of your eyes to prevent
- Injuries from
ultraviolet (UV) light can be prevented by wearing
sunglasses that block UV rays and by wearing broad-brimmed hats. Be aware that
the eye can be injured from sun glare during boating, sunbathing, or skiing. Use
eye protection while you are under tanning lamps or using tanning booths.
- Wear goggles or
protective glasses when you are handling chemicals, operating power tools,
hammering nails, or playing sports that involve a risk of a blow to the eye,
such as racquetball or hockey.
- Wear goggles or protective glasses
at all times if you have only one functional eye.
- Be a good example
to your children by wearing goggles or protective glasses when needed at work
- Get periodic vision checkups.
- If you wear contact lenses, take good care of them.
See caring for contact lenses.
- Keep your
blood pressure under control. High blood pressure can damage the blood vessels
that supply blood to the eye.
People who have diabetes are at risk for a vision problem
diabetic retinopathy, which is a complication of
having high blood sugar over a long time. People who have diabetes need regular
eye exams so that the early stages of diabetic retinopathy can be detected and
in some cases treated. They also need to keep their blood sugar levels as close
to normal as possible to prevent blood vessel damage from long-term high blood
It is important to protect your children's vision. Regular
eye exams identify problems early, and corrective measures can be taken.
Watching a lot of television, playing video games, or frequent computer use can
decrease your child's natural blink reflex, which can cause dry, red, and
irritated eyes. Do not let your child use laser pointers or laser toys. These can cause permanent eye damage if the laser is pointed at the eye.
Most vision problems are noticed first by the parents. See
tips for spotting eye problems in your child.
For tips on how to prevent eye infections, see the topic
For tips on how to prevent eye
injuries, see the topic
To prepare for your appointment, see the topic Making the Most of Your Appointment.
You can help your
doctor diagnose and treat your condition by being prepared to answer the
- What are your main symptoms? How long have you
had your symptoms?
- Do your symptoms affect one or both
- Have you had this problem in the past? If so, do you know
what caused the problem at that time? How was it treated?
- Do you
wear contact lenses or eyeglasses? Do you think the problem is because of your
- Have you had any vision changes, pain in the eye, double
vision, excessive tearing, or increased sensitivity to light?
you had any exposure to toxic fumes, chemicals, or smoke?
anyone in your family or at your workplace have an eye infection, such as
drainage from the eye or red and swollen eyelids?
- Do you have
allergies, or are your eye symptoms occurring at certain times of the
- What home treatment measures have you tried? Did they
- What prescription or nonprescription medicines have you used?
Did they help?
- Have you recently traveled outside the
- Do you smoke?
- Do you have any
- Objects in the Eye
- Styes and Chalazia
American Academy of Pediatrics Section on
Ophthalmology, et al. (2006). Screening examination of premature infants for
retinopathy of prematurity. Pediatrics, 117(2): 572–576.
[Errata in Pediatrics, 117(4): 1468 and Pediatrics,