Is it normal for a child to bite?
younger than age 3 bite someone else at least once. Most children stop biting
on their own. Biting that happens past age 3 or that occurs frequently at any age
may need treatment. Biting isn't always intentional, and a bite from a child rarely causes
serious injury to another person or poses any health risks.
Why do children bite?
Children bite other people for different
reasons, depending on their age.
From 5 to 7 months of age,
children may bite when they feel discomfort around their
mouths, such as when they are teething. Most often they bite their caregivers.
Sometimes a young baby bites his or her mother during breast-feeding.
From 8 to 14 months of age, children may bite when they are excited. Most
often they bite a caregiver or another child close to them.
From 15 to 36 months of age, children may bite when they are
frustrated or want power or control over another person. Usually they bite
other children. Less often, they bite their caregivers.
After age 3, children may bite
when they feel powerless or scared, such as when they are losing a fight or
think that someone is going to hurt them. Biting at this age may be a sign that a child has problems with expressing feelings or
When is a child most likely to bite another child?
Biting occurs in a variety of situations, most often when many
children are together, such as at day care. Most biting can be
prevented when adults help children find better ways to express their
A child of any age who frequently bites
other children may need special arrangements for day care. If biting becomes an ongoing problem, parents may be asked
to take their child out of a day care center.
Can biting be a sign of a more serious problem?
Biting in young children usually doesn't lead to behavior problems at a
later age. But children who bite others often and act aggressively
in other ways, especially if they are older than age 3, may have health problems or
emotional issues. These children should be seen by a doctor.
What can you do about your child's biting?
Not all biting can be prevented. What you can do to reduce biting depends on how old your child is and why he or she bites. For example:
- For teething babies, give them teething rings or a frozen washcloth to chew on.
- For children ages 8 to 14 months, tell them that biting hurts other
people. (Children this age are often not aware that bites hurt.) If your child bites you or someone else, react with a firm voice and say something like, "No! We do not
- For children ages 15 to 36 months, help them find other ways to express
their feelings. For example, say something like, "Use your words to tell Susan that you're angry at her for taking your truck."
Learn to recognize the signs that your child is about to
bite. You may be able to stop the biting before it happens if you can distract or
redirect your child. Don't try to reason with young children or have long talks about biting. Use simple and direct language.
Positive reinforcement also helps. Praise your child when he or she shows
behaviors that you want to encourage, such as sharing, being kind, or being patient. A reward can be as simple as giving your child a hug or a pat on the back and telling the child how well he or she is doing.
Be sure to model the
behavior you would like to see in your child. Avoid angry outbursts, and set a good example by showing your child how to deal
calmly with everyday frustrations. When a child bites:
Don't bite the child back to show how it feels to be
Don't wash out the child's mouth with soap.
slap, or use other physical punishment.
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- Growth and Development: Helping Your Child Build Self-Esteem
Learning about biting:
When might biting be a sign of a more serious problem?
My child was bitten by another child. Do we need to see a doctor about the bite?
How can I reduce biting in a teething baby?
How can I reduce biting in a child 8 to 14 months old?
How can I reduce biting in a child 15 to 36 months old?
What are some good strategies for child discipline?
How can I help my child build self-esteem and express feelings in a healthy way?
Animal and Human Bites
Biting as a Behavior Problem
Growth and Development, Ages 1 to 12 Months
Growth and Development, Ages 12 to 24 Months
Growth and Development, Ages 2 to 5 Years
Other Works Consulted
American Academy of Pediatrics (2009). Anger, aggression, and biting section of Behavior. In SP Shelov et al., eds., Caring for Your Baby and Young Child, Birth to Age 5, 5th ed., pp. 565–570. New York: Bantam.
Brazelton TB (2006). Eighteen months. In
Touchpoints, Birth to Three: Your Child's Emotional and Behavioral Development, 2nd ed., chap. 11, pp. 164–178. Cambridge, MA:
Da Capo Press.
Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health, American Academy of Pediatrics (1998, reaffirmed 2012). Guidance for effective discipline. Pediatrics, 101(4): 723–728. [Erratum in Pediatrics, 101(2): 433.] Also available online: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/130/2/e467.full.
Goldson E, Reynolds A (2011). Child development and behavior. In WW Hay Jr et al., eds., Current Diagnosis and Treatment: Pediatrics, 20th ed., pp. 64–103 New York: McGraw-Hill.
Howard B (2005). Biting others. In S Parker et al.,
eds., Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: A Handbook for Primary Care, 2nd ed.,
pp. 136–138. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and
Sonnett FM, et al. (2006). Mammalian bites and
bite-related infections. In FD Burg et al., eds., Current Pediatric Therapy, 18th ed., pp. 200–204. Philadelphia: Saunders