Doctors order heart tests for many reasons. For example, the test can find out what's causing symptoms like unexplained chest pain, shortness of breath, or irregular heartbeats.
Heart tests can be appropriate for a healthy person. This happens when a personal history or physical exam points to risk for a heart problem. For example, an athlete may be at risk for a heart problem associated with exercise. So a test such as an exercise electrocardiogram can be done before he or she takes part in competitive sports.
Here are some other reasons why you might need certain kinds of heart tests:
Helps your doctor find out your risk for a heart attack, especially when you are at medium risk
When should you say "no" to a test?
Heart tests help a lot when your doctor is trying to find out what's wrong, which treatment to use, or how well a certain treatment is working.
But experts say that many tests aren't needed—even for heart patients—when everything is fine and you're just having a checkup. Sometimes doctors automatically schedule routine tests because they think that's what patients expect.
Here's what experts say about common heart tests that are sometimes ordered when they're not needed:
Routine electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG): You may see ads telling you that "screening" EKGs are a good way to protect your health. "Screening" means having a test when you don't have any symptoms. If you are healthy and have no symptoms of heart disease, you can say "no" to this test. And even if you are a heart patient, a routine EKG just isn't needed as long as you have no new symptoms and you see your doctor several times a year.
Exercise EKG: If you're healthy and have no symptoms of heart disease, you can say "no" to this test, often called a stress test or treadmill test. In younger people who don't have symptoms of heart disease, an exercise EKG can actually cause needless worry. This is because it can show that you have heart problems when you really don't.
Echo: An echocardiogram isn't recommended as a routine test if you are healthy, have no heart problems, and have a low risk for heart disease. If you have coronary artery disease, you probably don't need this test unless you have new symptoms. It's not helpful for patients with mild heart murmurs. But if you have certain heart problems, like a valve disease or heart failure, your doctor needs to check your heart regularly with this test.
Exercise echo: This test isn't recommended if you're healthy and have no symptoms of heart disease.
Calcium scan: This test isn't recommended if you don't have risk factors for heart disease or you are at high risk of heart disease. In either case, the test won't tell you and your doctor anything you don't already know. But if your risk is medium, the test may tell you whether you need to take action to prevent a heart attack in the next few years.
The thought of saying "no" to a doctor makes a lot of people uncomfortable. But it's important to have a conversation about what the test is for. Asking a few questions is a great way to start that conversation. Try one or more of these questions:
"This test probably costs a lot, and I'm trying to save money. Do you think the cost is worth it for me?"
"How will this test help you treat my problem?"
"Will this test give you information that will affect my treatment?"
"How often is this test wrong? Could it say that I have a problem when I really don't?"
"What will happen if I don't have this test?"
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NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.)
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Primary Medical Reviewer
Rakesh K. Pai, MD, FACC - Cardiology, Electrophysiology
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