1. Gold S, Sherry L. Hyperactivity, learning disabilities, and alcohol. J Learn Disabil 1984;17:3–6.
2. Northrup C. Women’s Bodies, Women’s Wisdom. New York: Bantam, 1994, 613.
3. Haglund B, Cnattingius S. Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome. Am J Public Health 1990;80:29–32.
4. Adapted from McGanity WJ, Dawson EB, Van Hook JW. Maternal nutrition. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1999, 811–38.
5. Institute of Medicine. Nutrition during pregnancy, weight gain and nutrient supplements. Report of the Subcommittee on Nutritional Status and weight Gain during Pregnancy, Subcommittee on Dietary Intake and Nutrient Supplements during Pregnancy, Committee on Nutritional Status during Pregnancy and Lactation, Food and Nutrition Board. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1990, 1–233.
6. Caulfield LE, Witter FR, Stoltzfus RJ. Determinants of gestational weight gain outside the recommended ranges among black and white women. Obstet Gynecol 1996;87:760–6.
7. Hickey CA, Cliver SP, Goldenberg RL, et al. Prenatal weight gain, term birth weight, and fetal growth retardation among high-risk multiparous black and white women. Obstet Gynecol 1993;81:529–35.
8. Parker JD, Abrams B. Prenatal weight gain advice: an examination of the recent prenatal weight gain recommendations of the Institute of Medicine. Obstet Gynecol 1992;79:664–9.
9. Johnson JW, Yancey MK. A critique of the new recommendations for weight gain in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996;174(1 Pt 1):254–8 [review].
10. Abrams B, Parker JD. Maternal weight gain in women with good pregnancy outcome. Obstet Gynecol 1990;76:1–7.
11. Carmichael S, Abrams B, Selvin S. The pattern of maternal weight gain in women with good pregnancy outcomes. Am J Public Health 1997;87:1984–8.
12. Abrams B, Altman SL, Pickett KE. Pregnancy weight gain: still controversial. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(5 Suppl):1233S–41S [review].
13. Galtier-Dereure F, Boegner C, Bringer J. Obesity and pregnancy: complications and cost. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(5 Suppl):1242S–8S [review].
14. Carmichael SL, Abrams B. A critical review of the relationship between gestational weight gain and preterm delivery. Obstet Gynecol 1997;89:865–73 [review].
15. Abrams B, Altman SL, Pickett KE. Pregnancy weight gain: still controversial. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(5 Suppl):1233S–41S [review].
16. Wedenberg K, Moen B, Norling A. A prospective randomized study comparing acupuncture with physiotherapy for low-back and pelvic pain in pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2000;79:331–5.
17. Carlsson CPO, Axemo P, Bodin A, et al. Manual acupuncture reduces hyperemesis gravidarum: a placebo-controlled, randomized, single-blind, crossover study. J Pain Symptom Manage 2000;20:273–9.
18. Stainton MC, Neff EJ. The efficacy of SeaBands for the control of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Health Care Women Int 1994;15:563–75.
19. Belluomini J, Litt RC, Lee KA, Katz M. Acupressure for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a randomized, blinded study. Obstet Gynecol 1994;84:245–8.
20. Hyde E. Acupressure therapy for morning sickness. A controlled clinical trial. J Nurse Midwifery 1989;34:171–8.
21. Barnes B, Bradley SG. Planning for a Healthy Baby. London: Ebury Press, 1990.
22. Doyle W, et al. The association between maternal diet and birth dimensions. J Nutr Med 1990;1:9–17.
23. Price WA. Nutrition and Physical Degeneration, 50th anniv. ed. New Canaan, CT: Keats, 1989.
24. Khoury J, Henriksen T, Christophersen B, Tonstad S. Effect of a cholesterol-lowering diet on maternal, cord, and neonatal lipids, and pregnancy outcome: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;193:1292–301.
25. Infante-Rivard C, Fernandez A, Gauthier R, et al. Fetal loss associated with caffeine intake before and during pregnancy. JAMA 1993;270:2940–3.
26. Srisuphan W, Bracken MB. Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and association with late spontaneous abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1986;154:14–20.
27. Dlugosz L, Belanger K, Hellenbrand K, et al. Maternal caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion: a prospective cohort study. Epidemiology 1996;7:250–5.
28. Fenster L, Eskenazi B, Windham GC, Swan SH. Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion. Epidemiology 1991;2(3):168–74.
29. Klebanoff MA, Levine RJ, DerSimonian R, et al. Maternal serum paraxanthine, a caffeine metabolite, and the risk of spontaneous abortion. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1639–44.
30. Fernandes O, Sabharwal M, Smiley T, et al. Moderate to heavy caffeine consumption during pregnancy and relationship to spontaneous abortion and abnormal fetal growth: a meta-analysis. Reprod Toxicol 1998;12:435–44.
31. Caffeine in pregnancy. Rockville, MD: Food and Drug Administration, 1981. (FDA 81–1081.
32. Truswell AS. ABC of nutrition. Nutrition for pregnancy. Br Med J 1985;291: 263–6.
33. Scholl TO, Hediger ML, Schall JI, et al. Dietary and serum folate: their influence on the outcome of pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:520–5.
34. MRC Vitamin Study Research Group. Prevention of neural tube defects: Results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet 1991;338:131–7.
35. Tamura T, Goldenberg RL, Johnston KE, et al. Serum concentrations of zinc, folate, vitamins A and E, and proteins, and their relationships to pregnancy outcome. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand Suppl 1997;165:63–70.
36. Tamura T, Goldenberg RL, Freeberg LE, et al. Maternal serum folate and zinc concentrations and their relationships to pregnancy outcome. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:365–70.
37. Goldenberg RL, Tamura T, Cliver SP, et al. Serum folate and fetal growth retardation: a matter of compliance? Obstet Gynecol 1992;795 (Pt 1):719–22.
38. Neggers YH, Goldenberg RL, Tamura T, et al. The relationship between maternal dietary intake and infant birthweight. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand Suppl 1997;165:71–5.
39. Frelut ML, de Courcy GP, Christides JP, et al. Relationship between maternal folate status and foetal hypotrophy in a population with a good socio-economical level. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65:267–71.
40. Ek J. Plasma and red cell folate in mothers and infants in normal pregnancies. Relation to birth weight. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1982;61:17–20.
41. Malinow MR, Rajkovic A, Duell PB, et al. The relationship between maternal and neonatal umbilical cord plasma homocyst(e)ine suggests a potential role for maternal homocyst(e)ine in fetal metabolism. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;178:228–33.
42. Burke G, Robinson K, Refsum H, et al. Intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal death, and maternal homocysteine levels. N Engl J Med 1992;326:69–70 [letter].
43. Iyengar L, Rajalakshmi K. Effect of folic acid supplement on birth weights of infants. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1975;122:332–6.
44. Rolschau J, Date J, Kristoffersen K. Folic acid supplement and intrauterine growth. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1979;58:343–6.
45. Blot I, Papiernik E, Kaltwasser JP, et al. Influence of routine administration of folic acid and iron during pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest 1981;12:294–304.
46. Baumslag N, Edelstein T, Metz J. Reduction of incidence of prematurity by folic acid supplementation in pregnancy. Br Med J 1970;1:16–7.
47. Fleming AF, Martin JD, Hahnel R, Westlake AJ. Effects of iron and folic acid antenatal supplements on maternal haematology and fetal wellbeing. Med J Aust 1974;2:429–36.
48. Fletcher J, Gurr A, Fellingham FR, et al. The value of folic acid supplements in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 1971;78:781–5.
49. Giles PF, Harcourt AG, Whiteside MG. The effect of prescribing folic acid during pregnancy on birth-weight and duration of pregnancy. A double-blind trial. Med J Aust 1971;2:17–21.
50. Sutterlin M, Bussen S, Ruppert D, Steck T. Serum levels of folate and cobalamin in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion. Hum Reprod 1997;12:2292–6.
51. Wouters MG, Boers GH, Blom HJ, et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia: a risk factor in women with unexplained recurrent early pregnancy loss. Fertil Steril 1993;60:820–5.
52. Steegers-Theunissen RP, Boers GH, Blom HJ, et al. Hyperhomocysteinaemia and recurrent spontaneous abortion or abruptio placentae. Lancet 1992;339:1122–3 [letter].
53. Quere I, Bellet H, Hoffet M, et al. A woman with five consecutive fetal deaths: case report and retrospective analysis of hyperhomocysteinemia prevalence in 100 consecutive women with recurrent miscarriages. Fertil Steril 1998;69:152–4.
54. Quere I, Mercier E, Bellet H, et al. Vitamin supplementation and pregnancy outcome in women with recurrent early pregnancy loss and hyperhomocysteinemia. Fertil Steril 2001;75:823–5.
55. Pietrzik K, Prinz R, Reusch K, et al. Folate status and pregnancy outcome. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1992;669:371–3.
56. Neiger R, Wise C, Contag SA, et al. First trimester bleeding and pregnancy outcome in gravidas with normal and low folate levels. Am J Perinatol 1993;10:460–2.
57. Neela J, Raman L. The relationship between maternal nutritional status and spontaneous abortion. Natl Med J India 1997;10:15–6.
58. Botto LD, Mulinare J, Erickson JD. Occurrence of congenital heart defects in relation to maternal mulitivitamin use. Am J Epidemiol 2000;151:878–84.
59. Czeizel AE. Reduction of urinary tract and cardiovascular defects by periconceptional multivitamin supplementation. Am J Med Genet 1996;62:179–83.
60. Tamura T, Goldenberg R, Freeberg L, et al. Maternal serum folate and zinc concentrations and their relationships to pregnancy outcome. Am J Clin Nutr 1992:56;365–70.
61. Mock DM, Quirk JG, Mock NI. Marginal biotin deficiency during normal pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:295–9.
62. Truswell AS. ABC of nutrition. Nutrition for pregnancy. Br Med J 1985;291:263–6.
63. Villar J, Repke JT. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy may reduce preterm delivery in high-risk populations. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990;163:1124–31.
64. Ritchie LD, King JC. Dietary calcium and pregnancy-induced hypertension: is there a relation? Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(5 Suppl):1371S–4S [review].
65. Villar J, Belizan JM. Same nutrient, different hypotheses: disparities in trials of calcium supplementation during pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(5 Suppl):1375S–9S [review].
66. Koo WWK, Walters JC, Esterlitz J, et al. Maternal calcium supplementation and fetal bone mineralization. Obstet Gynecol 1999;94:577–82.
67. Olsen SF, Secher NJ, Tabor A, et al. Randomised clinical trials of fish oil supplementation in high risk pregnancies. Fish Oil Trials In Pregnancy (FOTIP) Team. Brit J Obstet Gynecol 2000;107:382–95.
68. Steuerwald U, Weihe P, Jorgensen PJ, et al. Maternal seafood diet, methylmercury exposure, and neonatal neurologic function. J Pediatr 2000;136:599–605.
69. Birch EE, Castaneda YS, Wheaton DH, Birch DG, Uauy RD, Hoffman DR. Visual maturation of term infants fed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented or control formula for 12 mo. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:871-9.
70. Allen LH. Anemia and iron deficiency: effects on pregnancy outcome. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(5 Suppl):1280S–4S [review].
71. Yu SM, Keppel KG, Singh GK, Kessel W. Preconceptional and prenatal multivitamin-mineral supplement use in the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. Am J Public Health 1996;86:240–2.
72. Romslo I, Haram K, Sagen N, Augensen K. Iron requirement in normal pregnancy as assessed by serum ferritin, serum transferrin saturation and erythrocyte protoporphyrin determinations. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1983;90:101–7.
73. Hemminki E, Uski A, Koponen P, Rimpela U. Iron supplementation during pregnancy—experiences of a randomized trial relying on health service personnel. Control Clin Trials 1989;10:290–8.
74. al-Momen AK, al-Meshari A, al-Nuaim L, et al. Intravenous iron sucrose complex in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1996;69:121–4.
75. Bloxam DL, Williams NR, Waskett RJD, et al. Maternal zinc during oral iron supplementation in pregnancy: a preliminary study. Clin Sci 1989;76:59–65.
76. Mukherjee MD, Sandstead HH, Ratnaparkhi MV, et al. Maternal zinc, iron, folic acid, and protein nutriture and outcome of human pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;40:496–507.
77. Nelson MM, Forfar JO. Associations between drugs administered during pregnancy and congenital abnormalities of the fetus. Br Med J 1971;1:523–7.
78. Frezza M, Surrenti C, Manzillo G, et al. Oral S-adenosylmethionine in the symptomatic treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Gastroenterology 1990;99:211–5.
79. Frezza M, Centini G, Cammareri G, et al. S-adenosylmethionine for the treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Results of a controlled clinical trial. Hepatogastroenterology 1990;37 Suppl 2:122–5.
80. Sutterlin M, Bussen S, Ruppert D, Steck T. Serum levels of folate and cobalamin in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion. Hum Reprod 1997;12:2292–6.
81. Wouters MG, Boers GH, Blom HJ, et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia: a risk factor in women with unexplained recurrent early pregnancy loss. Fertil Steril 1993;60:820–5.
82. Steegers-Theunissen RP, Boers GH, Blom HJ, et al. Hyperhomocysteinaemia and recurrent spontaneous abortion or abruptio placentae. Lancet 1992;339:1122–3 [letter].
83. Quere I, Bellet H, Hoffet M, et al. A woman with five consecutive fetal deaths: case report and retrospective analysis of hyperhomocysteinemia prevalence in 100 consecutive women with recurrent miscarriages. Fertil Steril 1998;69:152–4.
84. Quere I, Mercier E, Bellet H, et al. Vitamin supplementation and pregnancy outcome in women with recurrent early pregnancy loss and hyperhomocysteinemia. Fertil Steril 2001;75:823–5.
85. Casanueva E, Ripoll C, Tolentino M, et al. Vitamin C supplementation to prevent premature rupture of the chorioamniotic membranes: a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:859–63.
86. Velie EM, Block G, Shaw GM, et al. Maternal supplemental and dietary zinc intake and the occurrence of neural tube defects in California. Am J Epidemiol 1999;150:605–16.
87. Gladstar R. Herbal Healing for Women. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993, 176.
88. Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Gothenburg, Sweden: Ab Arcanum and Beaconsfield, UK: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd., 1988, 318.
89. Gladstar R. Herbal Healing for Women. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993, 176.
90. Gladstar R. Herbal Healing for Women. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993, 177.
91. Kohama T, Inoue M. Pycnogenol alleviates pain associated with pregnancy. Phytother Res 2006;20:232-4.
92. Gladstar R. Herbal Healing for Women. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993, 176.
93. Gladstar R. Herbal Healing for Women. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993, 177.
94. Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Gothenburg, Sweden: Ab Arcanum and Beaconsfield, UK: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd., 1988, 229–30.
95. Bingel AS, Farnsworth NR. Higher plants as potential sources of galactagogues. Econ Med Plant Res 1994;6:1–54 [review].
96. Mohr H. [Clinical investigations of means to increase lactation.] Dtsch Med Wschr 1954;79:1513–6 [in German].