A diagnosis of
osteoporosis is based on your
medical history, a physical exam, and a test to
measure your bone thickness (density).
Medical history and physical exam
- Take a medical history by asking questions about your family's health history and your own.
- Measure your height and compare the results
with past measurements.
- Examine your body for signs of previous
broken bones, such as changes in the shape of your long bones and
You will have a
bone density test. It helps your doctor estimate the
strength of your bones.
Routine urine and blood tests can
rule out other
medical conditions, such as
Cushing's syndrome. These conditions can cause bone loss.
If you or your doctor thinks that you may be at risk
for osteoporosis, you may have a screening test to check your bone
thickness. A screening test may be a good idea if you have:
fracture from a minor injury that may have been caused
- Another medical condition that is known to cause
- Risk factors for or symptoms that
Experts recommend that all women age 65 and older routinely have a
bone density test to screen for osteoporosis.
If you are at increased risk for fractures caused by osteoporosis, routine
screening should start sooner.3 The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that you and your doctor check your fracture risk using a tool such as FRAX to help decide whether you should be screened for osteoporosis. Talk to your doctor about your risk factors and when to start bone density screening.
- Osteoporosis: Should I Have a Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) Test?
Using the FRAX tool
The FRAX tool was developed by the World Health Organization to help predict your risk of having a fracture related to osteoporosis in the next 10 years. The tool is meant for people who are not already being treated with medicine for osteoporosis. You can use this tool. Go to the website at www.sheffield.ac.uk/FRAX, and click on Calculation Tool. If you have had a bone density test on your hip, you can type in your score. If you have not had that test, you can leave the score blank.
Screening in younger women
experts recommend that the decision to screen younger women be made
on an individual basis. The need for testing will depend on the risk for osteoporosis and
whether the test results will help with treatment decisions.
Ultrasound is sometimes offered at events such as health fairs as a quick screening for osteoporosis. Ultrasound by itself is not a reliable test for diagnosing osteoporosis. But if results of an ultrasound screening find low bone density, your doctor can help you decide whether you should have a bone density test.