Scrapes (abrasions) are skin wounds
that rub or tear off skin. Most scrapes are shallow and do not extend far into
the skin, but some may remove several layers of skin. Usually there is little
bleeding from a scrape, but it may ooze pinkish fluid. Most scrapes are minor,
so home treatment is usually all that is needed to care for the wound.
Scrapes occur most often in warm weather or warm climates when the skin
on the arms and legs is more exposed. They are most commonly caused by
accidents or falls but can occur anytime the skin is rubbed against a hard
surface, such as the ground, a sidewalk, a carpet, an artificial playing
surface, or a road (road rash). School-age children ages 5 to 9 are most
Scrapes can occur on any part of the body but usually
affect bony areas, such as the hands, forearms, elbows, knees, or shins.
Scrapes on the head or face may appear worse than they are and bleed a lot
because of the good blood supply to this area. Controlling the bleeding will
allow you to determine the seriousness of the injury. Scrapes are usually more
painful than cuts because scrapes tear a larger area of skin and expose more
How a scrape heals
depends on the depth, size, and location of the scrape. Occasionally the injury
that caused the scrape will also have caused a cut or several cuts that may
need to be treated by a doctor. For more information, see the topic
Determine if other tissues, such as
blood vessels, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints, bones, or internal organs,
have been injured.
Determine if you need to be evaluated and treated by a
Clean the wound and remove any dirt or debris to
prevent infections (both bacterial skin infections and
tetanus, or lockjaw), decrease scarring, and prevent
"tattooing" of the skin. (If dirt or other debris is not removed from a scrape,
the new skin heals over it. The dirt can then be seen through the skin and
often looks like a tattoo.)
A superficial scrape affects
just the top layer of skin.
A deep scrape
goes below the top layer of skin.
The wound may gape open.
be a cut in the scrape.
The flesh may look very raw and ground up,
or there may be a chunk of tissue missing.
Some types of facial wounds are more likely to leave a scar than others. These include:
Jagged wounds on the face.
Cuts on the eyelids.
Cuts to the lips, especially if they cut through the edge of the lip.
Stitches or other treatment may help prevent scarring. It's best to get treated within 8 hours of the injury.
Many things can affect how your body responds to a symptom and what kind
of care you may need. These include:
Your age. Babies and older
adults tend to get sicker quicker.
Your overall health. If you have a condition such as diabetes, HIV, cancer, or heart
disease, you may need to pay closer attention to certain symptoms and seek care
Medicines you take. Certain
medicines, herbal remedies, and supplements can cause symptoms or make them
Recent health events, such as surgery
or injury. These kinds of events can cause symptoms afterwards or make them
Your health habits and lifestyle, such as eating and exercise habits, smoking, alcohol or drug
use, sexual history, and travel.
Pain in adults and older children
Severe pain (8 to 10): The pain
is so bad that you can't stand it for more than a few hours, can't sleep, and
can't do anything else except focus on the pain.
Moderate pain (5 to 7): The pain is bad enough to disrupt your
normal activities and your sleep, but you can tolerate it for hours or days.
Moderate can also mean pain that comes and goes even if it's severe when it's
Mild pain (1 to 4): You notice the pain,
but it is not bad enough to disrupt your sleep or activities.
Seek Care Today
Based on your answers, you may need care soon. The
problem probably will not get better without medical care.
Call your doctor today to discuss the symptoms
and arrange for care.
If you cannot reach your doctor or you don't
have one, seek care today.
If it is evening, watch the symptoms and
seek care in the morning.
Put direct, steady pressure on the
wound until help arrives. Keep the area raised if you can.
To clean a wound well:
Wash your hands first.
pieces of dirt or debris from the wound with cleaned tweezers. Do not push the
tweezers deeply into the wound.
Hold the wound under cool running
water. If you have a sprayer in your sink, you can use it to help remove dirt
and other debris from the wound.
Scrub gently with water, a mild
soap, and a washcloth.
If some dirt or other debris is still in
the wound, clean it again.
If the wound starts to bleed, put
direct, steady pressure on it.
If a chemical has caused a wound or burn, follow the instructions on the chemical's container or call Poison Control (1-800-222-1222) to find out what to do. Most chemicals should be rinsed off with lots of water, but with some chemicals, water may make the burn worse.
Symptoms of infection may
Increased pain, swelling, warmth, or redness in or
around the area.
Red streaks leading from the area.
Pus draining from the area.
Seek Care Now
Based on your answers, you may need care right away. The problem is likely to get worse without medical care.
Call your doctor now to discuss the symptoms and
arrange for care.
If you cannot reach your doctor or you don't have
one, seek care in the next hour.
You do not need to call an
You cannot travel safely either by driving
yourself or by having someone else drive you.
You are in an area
where heavy traffic or other problems may slow you down.
Certain health conditions and medicines weaken the immune system's ability to fight off infection and
illness. Some examples in adults are:
Diseases such as diabetes, cancer, heart disease,
Long-term alcohol and drug
Steroid medicines, which may be used to treat a variety
Chemotherapy and radiation therapy for
Other medicines used to treat autoimmune
Medicines taken after organ transplant.
having a spleen.
You may need a tetanus shot depending
on how dirty the wound is and how long it has been since your last shot.
For a dirty wound that has
things like dirt, saliva, or feces in it, you may need a shot if:
You haven't had a tetanus shot in the past 5
You don't know when your last shot was.
For a clean wound, you may
need a shot if:
You have not had a tetanus shot in the past 10
You don't know when your last shot was.
Pain in children under 3 years
It can be hard to tell how much pain a baby or toddler is in.
Severe pain (8 to 10): The
pain is so bad that the baby cannot sleep, cannot get comfortable, and cries
constantly no matter what you do. The baby may kick, make fists, or
Moderate pain (5 to 7): The baby is
very fussy, clings to you a lot, and may have trouble sleeping but responds
when you try to comfort him or her.
Mild pain (1 to 4): The baby is a little fussy and clings to you a little but responds
when you try to comfort him or her.
Minor scrapes can be treated
effectively at home. Home treatment can prevent infection and promote healing.
If you do not have a high risk of infection, do not have other injuries, and
do not need a tetanus shot or an evaluation by a doctor, you can clean and bandage
a scrape at home. How a
scrape heals depends on the depth, size, and location
of the scrape.
Nonprescription products can be applied to the skin to help
stop mild bleeding of minor cuts, lacerations, or abrasions. Before you buy or
use a nonprescription product, be sure to read the label carefully and follow
the label's instructions when you apply the product.
After you have
stopped the bleeding, check your symptoms to decide if and when
you should see a doctor.
A scrape may continue to ooze small
amounts of blood for up to 24 hours and may ooze clear, yellowish, or
blood-tinged fluid for several days.
Cleaning the wound
Clean the wound as soon as
possible to reduce the chance of infection, scarring, and "tattooing." (If dirt
or other debris is not removed from a scrape, the new skin will heal over it.
The dirt can then be seen through the skin and may look like a tattoo.)
Use a large amount of water under moderate
pressure (faucet at least halfway open). Washing the wound will remove as much dirt, debris, and
bacteria as possible, which will reduce the risk of infection.
you have a water sprayer in your kitchen sink, try using the sprayer to wash
the wound. This usually removes most of the dirt and other objects from the
wound. Avoid getting any spray from the wound into your eyes. It may be easier
to rinse a large, dirty scrape in the shower.
Wash the wound for 5
minutes with large amounts of clean, running water and soap. Mild dishwashing soap, such
as Ivory, works well. Some nonprescription products are available for wound
cleaning that numb the area so cleaning doesn't hurt as much. Be sure to read
the product label for correct use.
Scrub gently with a washcloth.
Moderate scrubbing may be needed if the wound is very dirty. Scrubbing your
scrape will probably hurt and may increase bleeding, but it is necessary to
clean the wound thoroughly.
Do not use rubbing alcohol, hydrogen
peroxide, iodine, or Mercurochrome, which can harm the tissue and slow
Stitches, staples, or skin adhesives (also called liquid stitches)
Determine whether your wound needs to be treated by a
doctor. Scrapes usually do not need to be closed with stitches, staples, or skin adhesives, but sometimes you will have a deep cut along with a scrape.
Consider applying a bandage
Most scrapes heal well
and may not need a bandage. You may wish to protect the scrape from dirt or
irritation. It is important to clean the scrape thoroughly before bandaging it
to reduce the risk of infection occurring under the bandage.
Scrapes may heal with or without forming a
Select the bandage carefully. There are many
products available. Liquid skin bandages and moisture enhancing bandages are
available with other first aid products. Before you buy or use one, be sure to
read the label carefully and follow the label's instructions when you apply the
If you use a cloth-like bandage, apply a clean bandage
when your bandage gets wet or soiled to further help prevent infection. If a
bandage is stuck to a scab, soak it in warm water to soften the scab and make
the bandage easier to remove. If available, use a nonstick dressing. There are
many bandage products available. Be sure to read the product label for correct
signs of infection. If you have an infection under a
bandage, a visit to your doctor may be needed.
ointment, such as polymyxin B sulfate (for example, Polysporin) or bacitracin,
will keep the bandage from sticking to the wound. Apply the ointment lightly to
the wound. Antibiotic ointments have not been shown to improve healing. Be sure
to read the product label about skin sensitivity. If you have a skin rash or
itching under the bandage, stop using the ointment. The rash may be caused by
an allergic reaction to the ointment.
Aspirin (also a nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drug), such as Bayer or Bufferin
Talk to your child's doctor before switching back and
forth between doses of acetaminophen and ibuprofen. When you switch between two
medicines, there is a chance your child will get too much medicine.
Be sure to follow
these safety tips when you use a nonprescription medicine:
Carefully read and follow all
directions on the medicine bottle and box.
How this information was developed to help you make better health decisions.