Tips for older adults and people who have had a stroke or have multiple sclerosis or osteoporosis to help prevent falls and injuries. Covers taking care of your health and making changes in your home. Covers preventing falls in the bathroom and outdoors.
Preventing Falls in Older Adults
Every year, thousands of older adults fall and hurt themselves. Falls are one of the main causes of injury and loss of independence in people ages 65 and older.
There are many reasons older people fall. They may lose their footing when stepping off a street curb. Or they may fall after getting dizzy from taking medicines. Some falls may be related to the effects of aging, such as muscle weakness or delayed reflexes. Or falls may be related to the results of a stroke.
Experts agree that some falls in older adults can be prevented. But since each person's risks are a bit different, talk to your doctor about which of the tips below might help you.
Take care of yourself
Keep your bones strong. Talk to your doctor to be sure you are getting enough vitamin D and calcium.
Have your vision
and hearing checked each year or anytime you notice a
change. If you have trouble seeing and hearing, you might
not be able to avoid objects that make you lose your balance.
doctor if you have calluses or corns on your feet that
need to be removed or if you have sores that are not healing. If you wear loose-fitting shoes because of foot problems, you can lose your balance and fall.
If you tend to feel lightheaded when you stand up quickly, take the time to get up slowly from your bed or chair. When you wake up, it may help to sit up first and count slowly to 10 before you try to stand up. And after you stand up, stay still for a few seconds before you move.
If you are very weak or dizzy, don't try to walk around. Instead, see your doctor as soon as possible.
doctor if you are dizzy and lose your balance. You may
have a health problem that needs treatment, such as a blood pressure or inner ear problem. Or you may be having a side effect from a medicine that you take.
If you live alone, think about
wearing an alarm device that will bring help in case you fall and can't get up.
Or carry a cordless or cell phone with you from room to room. Then you can
quickly call for help if you need it.
Set up a plan to make contact once a day with a family member or friend. Have one person who knows where you are.
Learn to do a few exercises for strength and balance. Practicing these each day can help you stay active and independent.
low-heeled shoes that fit well and give your feet good support. Use footwear
with nonskid soles. Repair or replace worn heels and soles.
If you use a walker or cane, make sure it is fitted to you. Put rubber tips on it.
If you have pets, keep them in one place
at night. Train your pets not to jump or get underfoot.
Think about buying a collar with a bell for your pet so you will know
when your pet is nearby.
Learn about your medicines
Know the side
effects of the medicines that you take. Ask your
doctor if the medicines you take can
affect your balance. For instance, sleeping pills
and some medicines for anxiety can affect your
If you take two or more medicines, talk to your doctor
about how they work together. Sometimes combinations of medicines can
cause dizziness or sleepiness. Either of these can lead to
Make your home safer
Remove or fix things you could trip
over, such as raised doorway thresholds, throw rugs, or loose carpet.
Keep paths clear of electrical cords and
Use nonskid floor wax, and wipe up
spills right away.
Keep your house well
lit. Use night-lights (or keep the overhead light on at
night) in hallways and
Put sturdy handrails on stairways.
Make sure you have a light at the top and bottom of the
Store things on
lower shelves so you don't have to climb or reach high.
Keep a phone and a flashlight by your bed.
Check the flashlight batteries often to make sure they still
Install grab handles and nonskid mats in
the tub and shower.
a shower chair or bath bench. You can also try using a hand-held shower head.
Get into a tub or shower by putting the weaker leg in first.
Get out of a tub or shower with your strong side first.
Prevent outdoor falls
When you go outdoors, keep your hands free by using a shoulder bag, a fanny pack, or a backpack.
If you wear bifocal or trifocal glasses, you may have problems as you step off curbs or climb stairs. See about getting glasses with a single prescription that you can wear when you walk.
Find out about 24-hour drugstores and grocery stores near you that can take orders over the telephone and make deliveries to your home. Use these services, especially when the weather is bad.
If you live in an area that gets snow and ice in the
winter, have a family member or friend sprinkle salt or sand on slippery steps and sidewalks.
Other Places To Get Help
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
6300 North River Road
Rosemont, IL 60018-4262
The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS)
provides information and education to raise the public's awareness of
musculoskeletal conditions, with an emphasis on preventive measures. The AAOS
website contains information on orthopedic conditions and treatments, injury
prevention, and wellness and exercise.
1111 North Fairfax Street
Alexandria, VA 22314-1488
1-800-999-APTA (1-800-999-2782) (703) 684-2782
The American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) Move Forward website provides information
and education to the public about physical therapy and how it is used to treat
certain conditions. APTA is a national
organization representing over 85,000 physical therapists, physical therapist
assistants, and students. APTA's goal is to foster advancements in physical
therapist education, practice, and research.
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and
Skin Diseases (NIAMS), National Institutes of Health
1 AMS Circle
Bethesda, MD 20892-3675
1-877-22-NIAMS (1-877-226-4267) toll-free
The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal
and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) is a governmental institute that serves the public
and health professionals by providing information, locating other information
sources, and participating in a national federal database of health
information. NIAMS supports research into the causes, treatment, and prevention
of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases and supports the training of
scientists to carry out this research.
The NIAMS website provides
health information referrals to the NIAMS Clearinghouse, which has information
packages about diseases.
National Institute on Aging
Building 31, Room 5C27
31 Center Drive, MSC 2292
Bethesda, MD 20892
The National Institute on Aging (NIA), one of the
centers of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, leads a broad scientific
effort to understand the nature of aging and to extend the healthy, active
years of life. The NIA funds research and provides information about health and
research advances to the public and interested groups.
NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center
2 AMS Circle
Bethesda, MD 20892-3676
(202) 223-0344 Toll Free: 1-800-624-BONE (2663)
As a service provided by the National Institutes of Health, this online resource center helps people learn about metabolic bone diseases and how to cope with them. The website has information on falls under their "Bone Basics" tab. It also has information on osteoporosis and other bone diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and Paget's disease of bone.
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and American Academy of Pediatrics (2010). Falls and traumatic injuries in the elderly patient. In JF Sarwark, ed., Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care, 4th ed., pp. 96–100. Rosemont, IL: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
Graham P, et al. (2010). The prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. In WR Frontera, ed., DeLisa's Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 1, pp. 979–1014. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
How this information was developed to help you make better health decisions.