Amino Acids Overview

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Uses

Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. Twenty amino acids are needed to build the various proteins used in the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues. Eleven of these amino acids can be made by the body itself, while the other nine (called essential amino acids) must come from the diet. The essential amino acids are isoleucine , leucine , lysine , methionine , phenylalanine , threonine, tryptophan, and valine . Another amino acid, histidine , is considered semi-essential because the body does not always require dietary sources of it. The nonessential amino acids are arginine , alanine , asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine , glutamine , glutamic acid , glycine , proline, serine, and tyrosine . Other amino acids, such as carnitine and taurine, are used by the body in ways other than protein-building and are often used therapeutically. L-Theanine is an amino acid found in tea that is said to help relieve stress. Beta-alanine has been used to prevent fatigue during exercise.

What Are Star Ratings?

Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.

2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.

1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

Used for Why
2 Stars
Liver Cirrhosis
18 grams daily of L-ornithine-L-aspartate
As both a supplement and injection, L-ornithine-L-aspartate has been shown to significantly improve liver function, mental status, and brain function.

L-ornithine-L-aspartate (OA) is a nutritional supplement that has been investigated as a treatment for cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. In a double-blind trial, participants taking 18 grams of OA for 14 days had significant improvements in liver function, mental status, and brain function.1 Similar benefits have also been demonstrated using injections of OA.2 , 3

1 Star
Athletic Performance
Refer to label instructions
Aspartic acid is an amino acid that participates in many biochemical reactions relating to energy and protein. Research suggests that it may help reduce fatigue during exercise.
Aspartic acid is a non-essential amino acid that participates in many biochemical reactions relating to energy and protein. Preliminary, though conflicting, animal and human research suggested a role for aspartic acid (in the form of potassium and magnesium aspartate) in reducing fatigue during exercise.5 However, most studies have found aspartic acid useless in improving either athletic performance or the body’s response to exercise.6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10

How It Works

How to Use It

Nutrition experts recommend that protein, as a source of amino acids, account for 10–12% of the calories in a balanced diet. However, requirements for protein are affected by age, weight, state of health, and other factors. On average, a normal adult requires approximately 0.36 grams of protein per pound of body weight. Using this formula, a 140-pound person would need 50 grams (or less than 2 ounces) of protein per day. An appropriate range of protein intake for healthy adults may be as low as 45–65 grams daily. Some athletes have higher amino acid requirements.11 Most American adults eat about 100 grams of protein per day, or about twice what their bodies need and at least as much as any athlete requires.

Supplements of individual amino acids are recommended by doctors for specific purposes, such as lysine for herpes or phenylalanine for pain .

Where to Find It

Foods of animal origin, such as meat and poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products, are the richest dietary sources of the essential amino acids. Plant sources of protein are often deficient in one or more essential amino acids. However, these deficiencies can be overcome by consuming a wide variety of plant foods. For example, grains are low in lysine , whereas beans provide an excess of lysine. It was previously believed that, in order for vegetarians to obtain adequate amounts of protein, all of the essential amino acids had to be “balanced” at each meal. For example, a grain and a bean had to be consumed at the same meal. However, more recent research has indicated that, while consuming a proper mix of amino acids is important, it is not necessary to consume them all at the same meal.12

Possible Deficiencies

The vast majority of Americans eats more than enough protein and also more than enough of each essential amino acid for normal purposes. Dieters, some strict vegetarian body builders, and anyone consuming an inadequate number of calories may not be consuming adequate amounts of amino acids. In these cases, the body will break down the protein in muscle tissue and use those amino acids to meet the needs of more important organs or will simply not build more muscle mass despite increasing exercise.

Interactions

Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds

Amino acids include several different nutrients, each of which has the potential to interact with drugs. Look up the unique interactions for each and discuss the potential benefits and risks of your current medications with your doctor or pharmacist before adding amino acids:

Interactions with Medicines

Certain medicines interact with this supplement.

Types of interactions: Beneficial Adverse Check

Replenish Depleted Nutrients

  • AZT

    Preliminary information suggests that muscle damage sometimes caused by AZT is at least partially due to depletion of carnitine in the muscles by the drug.20 It has been reported that most patients taking AZT have depleted carnitine levels that can be restored with carnitine supplementation (6 grams per day).21

  • Busulfan

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.56 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Capecitabine

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.58 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Carbamazepine

    Several controlled and preliminary studies showed that multiple drug therapy for seizures results in dramatic reductions in blood carnitine levels.79 , 80 , 81 Further controlled research is needed to determine whether children taking anticonvulsants might benefit by supplementing with L-carnitine, since current studies yield conflicting results. For example, one controlled study indicated that children taking valproic acid and carbamazepine received no benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.82 However, another small study revealed that children taking valproic acid experienced less fatigue and excessive sleepiness following L-carnitine supplementation.83 Despite the lack of well-controlled studies, individuals who are taking anticonvulsants and experiencing side effects might benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.

  • Carboplatin

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.84 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Carmustine

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.113 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Cefditoren Pivoxil
    In a case report, a woman developed visual disturbances and abnormal brain function, in association with subnormal blood levels of carnitine, after treatment with cefditoren pivoxil. The abnormalities resolved after supplementation with L-carnitine. People taking cefditoren pivoxil should ask their doctor whether taking an L-carnitine supplement is appropriate.126
  • Chlorambucil

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.146 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Cisplatin

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.160 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Cladribine

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.182 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Clozapine

    Some people who take clozapine become mentally depressed after taking the drug for a few weeks. Studies have shown that clozapine can reduce blood levels of the amino acid L-tryptophan, which is often deficient in people with depression .186 More controlled research is needed to determine whether the interaction is significant and whether individuals taking clozapine might benefit from supplemental L-tryptophan or 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP).

  • Cyclophosphamide

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.200 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Cytarabine

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.214 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Diclofenac

    Diclofenac causes complex changes to L-tryptophan levels in the blood,225 but the clinical implications of this are unknown. More research is needed to determine whether supplementation with L-tryptophan is a good idea for people taking diclofenac.

  • Docetaxel

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.241 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Erlotinib

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.266 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Etoposide

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.287 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Felbamate

    Several controlled and preliminary studies showed that multiple drug therapy for seizures results in dramatic reductions in blood carnitine levels.288 , 289 , 290 Further controlled research is needed to determine whether children taking anticonvulsants might benefit by supplementing with L-carnitine, since current studies yield conflicting results. For example, one controlled study indicated that children taking valproic acid and carbamazepine received no benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.291 However, another small study revealed that children taking valproic acid experienced less fatigue and excessive sleepiness following L-carnitine supplementation.292 Despite the lack of well-controlled studies, individuals who are taking anticonvulsants and experiencing side effects might benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.

  • Floxuridine

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.312 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Fludarabine

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.322 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Fluorouracil

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.357 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Hydroxyurea

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.374 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Ifosfamide

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.384 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Irinotecan

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.410 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Levetiracetam

    Several controlled and preliminary studies showed that multiple drug therapy for seizures results in dramatic reductions in blood carnitine levels.431 , 432 , 433 Further controlled research is needed to determine whether children taking anticonvulsants might benefit by supplementing with L-carnitine, since current studies yield conflicting results. For example, one controlled study indicated that children taking valproic acid and carbamazepine received no benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.434 However, another small study revealed that children taking valproic acid experienced less fatigue and excessive sleepiness following L-carnitine supplementation.435 Despite the lack of well-controlled studies, individuals who are taking anticonvulsants and experiencing side effects might benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.

  • Lomustine

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.457 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Mechlorethamine

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.478 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Melphalan

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.487 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Mercaptopurine

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.519 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Methotrexate

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.522 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Oxcarbazepine

    Several controlled and preliminary studies showed that multiple drug therapy for seizures results in dramatic reductions in blood carnitine levels.528 , 529 , 530 Further controlled research is needed to determine whether children taking anticonvulsants might benefit by supplementing with L-carnitine, since current studies yield conflicting results. For example, one controlled study indicated that children taking valproic acid and carbamazepine received no benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.531 However, another small study revealed that children taking valproic acid experienced less fatigue and excessive sleepiness following L-carnitine supplementation.532 Despite the lack of well-controlled studies, individuals who are taking anticonvulsants and experiencing side effects might benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.

  • Paclitaxel

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.533 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Phenobarbital
    One controlled study showed that taking phenobarbital resulted in reduced blood levels of L-carnitine.[REF] Further research is needed to determine whether people taking phenobarbital might benefit from supplemental L-carnitine. Based on the currently available information, some healthcare practitioners may recommend monitoring L-carnitine blood levels or supplementing with L-carnitine.
  • Phenytoin

    Several controlled and preliminary studies showed that multiple drug therapy for seizures results in dramatic reductions in blood carnitine levels.553 , 554 , 555 Further controlled research is needed to determine whether children taking anticonvulsants might benefit by supplementing with L-carnitine, since current studies yield conflicting results. For example, one controlled study indicated that children taking valproic acid and carbamazepine received no benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.556 However, another small study revealed that children taking valproic acid experienced less fatigue and excessive sleepiness following L-carnitine supplementation.557 Despite the lack of well-controlled studies, individuals who are taking anticonvulsants and experiencing side effects might benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.

  • Polifeprosan 20 with Carmustine

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.571 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Primidone

    Several controlled and preliminary studies showed that multiple drug therapy for seizures results in dramatic reductions in blood carnitine levels.572 , 573 , 574 Further controlled research is needed to determine whether children taking anticonvulsants might benefit by supplementing with L-carnitine, since current studies yield conflicting results. For example, one controlled study indicated that children taking valproic acid and carbamazepine received no benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.575 However, another small study revealed that children taking valproic acid experienced less fatigue and excessive sleepiness following L-carnitine supplementation.576 Despite the lack of well-controlled studies, individuals who are taking anticonvulsants and experiencing side effects might benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.

  • Thioguanine

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.586 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Thiotepa

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.607 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Topiramate

    Several controlled and preliminary studies showed that multiple drug therapy for seizures results in dramatic reductions in blood carnitine levels.616 , 617 , 618 Further controlled research is needed to determine whether children taking anticonvulsants might benefit by supplementing with L-carnitine, since current studies yield conflicting results. For example, one controlled study indicated that children taking valproic acid and carbamazepine received no benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.619 However, another small study revealed that children taking valproic acid experienced less fatigue and excessive sleepiness following L-carnitine supplementation.620 Despite the lack of well-controlled studies, individuals who are taking anticonvulsants and experiencing side effects might benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.

  • Uracil Mustard

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.644 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Vinblastine

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.658 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Vincristine

    Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.686 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

  • Zonisamide

    Several controlled and preliminary studies showed that multiple drug therapy for seizures results in dramatic reductions in blood carnitine levels.687 , 688 , 689 Further controlled research is needed to determine whether children taking anticonvulsants might benefit by supplementing with L-carnitine, since current studies yield conflicting results. For example, one controlled study indicated that children taking valproic acid and carbamazepine received no benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.690 However, another small study revealed that children taking valproic acid experienced less fatigue and excessive sleepiness following L-carnitine supplementation.691 Despite the lack of well-controlled studies, individuals who are taking anticonvulsants and experiencing side effects might benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.

Reduce Side Effects

  • Bicalutamide

    Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.23 , 24 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,25 , 26 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

    Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.27 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,28 but not all29 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.30

    One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.31 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.32 , 33

    Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.34

    In a double-blind study, supplementation with 18 grams of glutamine per day for 15 days, starting five days before the beginning of 5-FU therapy, significantly reduced the severity of drug-induced intestinal toxicity.35

    Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.36

  • Busulfan

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.57

  • Capecitabine

    Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.67 , 68 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,69 , 70 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

    Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.71 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,72 but not all,73 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.74

    One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.75 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.76 , 77

    Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.78

  • Carboplatin

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.104

  • Carmustine

    Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.114 , 115 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,116 , 117 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

    Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.118 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,119 but not all,120 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.121

    One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.122 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.123 , 124

    Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.125

  • Chlorambucil

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.147

  • Cisplatin

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by cisplatin.161

  • Cladribine

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.181

  • Cyclophosphamide

    Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.188 , 189 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,190 , 191 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

    Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.192 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,193 but not all194 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.195

    One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.196 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.197 , 198

    Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.199

  • Cytarabine

    High-dose cisplatin chemotherapy is associated with kidney toxicity and damage, which may be reduced by glutathione administration.215 , 216 , 217 , 218 Nerve damage is another frequent complication of high amounts of cisplatin. Preliminary evidence has shown that glutathione injections may protect nerve tissue during cisplatin therapy without reducing cisplatin’s anti-tumor activity.219 , 220 , 221 There is no evidence that glutathione taken by mouth has the same benefits.

  • Didanosine

    Severe peripheral neuropathy (painful sensations due to nerve damage in the hands and feet) often develops in people taking didanosine or other drugs in its class. People with peripheral neuropathy who were taking one of these drugs were found to be deficient in acetyl-L-carnitine.226 In a preliminary trial, supplementation with 1,500 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine twice a day resulted in improvement in the neuropathy after six months in people taking didanosine or related drugs.227 Similar benefits were seen in another study that used the same amount of acetyl-L-carnitine.228

  • Docetaxel

    Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.229 , 230 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,231 , 232 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

    Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.233 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,234 but not all235 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.236

    One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.237 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.238 , 239

    Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.240

  • Doxorubicin

    Animal research suggests carnitine may prevent doxorubicin’s toxicity.245

  • Erlotinib

    High-dose cisplatin chemotherapy is associated with kidney toxicity and damage, which may be reduced by glutathione administration.259 , 260 , 261 , 262 Nerve damage is another frequent complication of high amounts of cisplatin. Preliminary evidence has shown that glutathione injections may protect nerve tissue during cisplatin therapy without reducing cisplatin’s anti-tumor activity.263 , 264 , 265 There is no evidence that glutathione taken by mouth has the same benefits.

  • Etoposide

    Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.275 , 276 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,277 , 278 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

    Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.279 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,280 but not all,281 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.282

    One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.283 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.284 , 285

    Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.286

  • Floxuridine

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.313

  • Fludarabine

    Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.323 , 324 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,325 , 326 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

    Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.327 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,328 but not all,329 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.330

    One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.331 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.332 , 333

    Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.334

  • Fluorouracil

    Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.343 , 344 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,345 , 346 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

    Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.347 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,348 but not all349 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.350

    One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.351 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.352 , 353

    Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.354

    In a double-blind study, supplementation with 18 grams of glutamine per day for 15 days, starting five days before the beginning of 5-FU therapy, significantly reduced the severity of drug-induced intestinal toxicity.355

    Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.356

  • Hydroxyurea

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.382

  • Ifosfamide

    Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.392 , 393 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,394 , 395 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

    Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.396 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,397 but not all,398 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.399

    One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.400 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.401 , 402

    Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.403

  • Interferon Alfa-2a
    In a randomized trial, patients with chronic hepatitis C who were being treated with Peg-interferon-alpha 2b and ribavirin were randomly assigned to receive L-carnitine (2 grams twice a day) or no L-carnitine (control group). Compared with the control group, fewer patients in the L-carnitine group had to reduce the medication dosage or discontinue treatment because of side effects such as anemia or a decline in the white blood cell count.407
  • Interferon Alfa-2B
    In a randomized trial, patients with chronic hepatitis C who were being treated with Peg-interferon-alpha 2b and ribavirin were randomly assigned to receive L-carnitine (2 grams twice a day) or no L-carnitine (control group). Compared with the control group, fewer patients in the L-carnitine group had to reduce the medication dosage or discontinue treatment because of side effects such as anemia or a decline in the white blood cell count.408
  • Interferon Alfacon-1
    In a randomized trial, patients with chronic hepatitis C who were being treated with Peg-interferon-alpha 2b and ribavirin were randomly assigned to receive L-carnitine (2 grams twice a day) or no L-carnitine (control group). Compared with the control group, fewer patients in the L-carnitine group had to reduce the medication dosage or discontinue treatment because of side effects such as anemia or a decline in the white blood cell count.409
  • Irinotecan

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.430

  • Lomustine

    High-dose cisplatin chemotherapy is associated with kidney toxicity and damage, which may be reduced by glutathione administration.438 , 439 , 440 , 441 Nerve damage is another frequent complication of high amounts of cisplatin. Preliminary evidence has shown that glutathione injections may protect nerve tissue during cisplatin therapy without reducing cisplatin’s anti-tumor activity.442 , 443 , 444 There is no evidence that glutathione taken by mouth has the same benefits.

  • Mechlorethamine

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.477

  • Melphalan

    Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.488 , 489 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,490 , 491 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

    Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.492 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,493 but not all,494 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.495

    One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.496 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.497 , 498

    Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.499

  • Mercaptopurine

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.520

  • Methotrexate

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.523

  • Paclitaxel

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks, has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by paclitaxel.550

  • Peginterferon Alfa-2a
    In a randomized trial, patients with chronic hepatitis C who were being treated with Peg-interferon-alpha 2b and ribavirin were randomly assigned to receive L-carnitine (2 grams twice a day) or no L-carnitine (control group). Compared with the control group, fewer patients in the L-carnitine group had to reduce the medication dosage or discontinue treatment because of side effects such as anemia or a decline in the white blood cell count.551
  • Peginterferon Alfa-2b
    In a randomized trial, patients with chronic hepatitis C who were being treated with Peg-interferon-alpha 2b and ribavirin were randomly assigned to receive L-carnitine (2 grams twice a day) or no L-carnitine (control group). Compared with the control group, fewer patients in the L-carnitine group had to reduce the medication dosage or discontinue treatment because of side effects such as anemia or a decline in the white blood cell count.552
  • Polifeprosan 20 with Carmustine

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.570

  • Ribavirin
    In a randomized trial, patients with chronic hepatitis C who were being treated with Peg-interferon-alpha 2b and ribavirin were randomly assigned to receive L-carnitine (2 grams twice a day) or no L-carnitine (control group). Compared with the control group, fewer patients in the L-carnitine group had to reduce the medication dosage or discontinue treatment because of side effects such as anemia or a decline in the white blood cell count.580
  • Stavudine

    Severe peripheral neuropathy (painful sensations due to nerve damage in the hands and feet) often develops in people taking stavudine or other drugs in its class. People with peripheral neuropathy who were taking one of these drugs were found to be deficient in acetyl-L-carnitine.583 In a preliminary trial, supplementing with 1,500 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine twice a day resulted in improvement in the neuropathy after six months in people taking stavudine or related drugs.584 Similar benefits were seen in another study that used the same amount of acetyl-L-carnitine.585

  • Thioguanine

    High-dose cisplatin chemotherapy is associated with kidney toxicity and damage, which may be reduced by glutathione administration.600 , 601 , 602 , 603 Nerve damage is another frequent complication of high amounts of cisplatin. Preliminary evidence has shown that glutathione injections may protect nerve tissue during cisplatin therapy without reducing cisplatin’s anti-tumor activity.604 , 605 , 606 There is no evidence that glutathione taken by mouth has the same benefits.

  • Thiotepa

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by cisplatin.615

  • Uracil Mustard

    High-dose cisplatin chemotherapy is associated with kidney toxicity and damage, which may be reduced by glutathione administration.637 , 638 , 639 , 640 Nerve damage is another frequent complication of high amounts of cisplatin. Preliminary evidence has shown that glutathione injections may protect nerve tissue during cisplatin therapy without reducing cisplatin’s anti-tumor activity.641 , 642 , 643 There is no evidence that glutathione taken by mouth has the same benefits.

  • Vinblastine

    High-dose cisplatin chemotherapy is associated with kidney toxicity and damage, which may be reduced by glutathione administration.659 , 660 , 661 , 662 Nerve damage is another frequent complication of high amounts of cisplatin. Preliminary evidence has shown that glutathione injections may protect nerve tissue during cisplatin therapy without reducing cisplatin’s anti-tumor activity.663 , 664 , 665 There is no evidence that glutathione taken by mouth has the same benefits.

  • Vincristine

    Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.674 , 675 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,676 , 677 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

    Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.678 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,679 but not all,680 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.681

    One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.682 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.683 , 684

    Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.685

Support Medicine

  • Allopurinol

    In a preliminary study, seven of eight individuals with severe mental depression showed improvement when they took L-tryptophan and allopurinol;13 of these seven, five experienced full remission. Controlled research is necessary to determine whether this combination might be more effective for severe depression than standard treatment.

  • Amitriptyline

    Combination of 6 grams per day L-tryptophan and 1,500 mg per day niacinamide (a form of vitamin B3) with imipramine has shown to be more effective than imipramine alone for people with bipolar disorder .14 These levels did not improve the effects of imipramine in people with depression . Lower amounts (4 grams per day of L-tryptophan and 1,000 mg per day of niacinamide) did show some tendency to enhance the effect of imipramine.

    The importance of the amount of L-tryptophan was confirmed in other studies, suggesting that if too much L-tryptophan (6 grams per day) is used, it is not beneficial, while levels around 4 grams per day may make tricyclic antidepressants work better.15 , 16

  • Amoxapine

    Combination of 6 grams per day L-tryptophan and 1,500 mg per day niacinamide (a form of vitamin B3) with imipramine has shown to be more effective than imipramine alone for people with bipolar disorder .17 These levels did not improve the effects of imipramine in people with depression . Lower amounts (4 grams per day of L-tryptophan and 1,000 mg per day of niacinamide) did show some tendency to enhance the effect of imipramine.

    The importance of the amount of L-tryptophan was confirmed in other studies, suggesting that if too much L-tryptophan (6 grams per day) is used, it is not beneficial, while levels around 4 grams per day may make tricyclic antidepressants work better.18 , 19

  • Benztropine

    Akathisia is an adverse reaction to anti-psychotic drugs, where a person has an uncontrollable desire to be in constant motion. One preliminary report suggested that 4,000 mg of L-tryptophan and 25 mg niacin per day taken with benztropine enhances the treatment of akathisia.22 Controlled studies are necessary to determine whether L-tryptophan and niacin supplements might benefit most people taking benztropine who experience adverse reactions to anti-psychotic drugs.

  • Clomipramine

    Combination of 6 grams per day L-tryptophan and 1,500 mg per day niacinamide (a form of vitamin B3) with imipramine has shown to be more effective than imipramine alone for people with bipolar disorder .183 These levels did not improve the effects of imipramine in people with depression . Lower amounts (4 grams per day of L-tryptophan and 1,000 mg per day of niacinamide) did show some tendency to enhance the effect of imipramine.

    The importance of the amount of L-tryptophan was confirmed in other studies, suggesting that if too much L-tryptophan (6 grams per day) is used, it is not beneficial, while levels around 4 grams per day may make tricyclic antidepressants work better.184 , 185

  • Desipramine

    Combination of 6 grams per day L-tryptophan and 1,500 mg per day niacinamide (a form of vitamin B3) with imipramine has shown to be more effective than imipramine alone for people with bipolar disorder .222 These levels did not improve the effects of imipramine in people with depression . Lower amounts (4 grams per day of L-tryptophan and 1,000 mg per day of niacinamide) did show some tendency to enhance the effect of imipramine.

    The importance of the amount of L-tryptophan was confirmed in other studies, suggesting that if too much L-tryptophan (6 grams per day) is used, it is not beneficial, while levels around 4 grams per day may make tricyclic antidepressants work better.223 , 224

  • Doxepin

    Combination of 6 grams per day L-tryptophan and 1,500 mg per day niacinamide (a form of vitamin B3) with imipramine has shown to be more effective than imipramine alone for people with bipolar disorder .242 These levels did not improve the effects of imipramine in people with depression . Lower amounts (4 grams per day of L-tryptophan and 1,000 mg per day of niacinamide) did show some tendency to enhance the effect of imipramine.

    The importance of the amount of L-tryptophan was confirmed in other studies, suggesting that if too much L-tryptophan (6 grams per day) is used, it is not beneficial, while levels around 4 grams per day may make tricyclic antidepressants work better.243 , 244

  • Haloperidol

    Two double-blind studies have found that 0.4–0.8 mg/kg body weight per day of glycine can reduce the so-called negative symptoms of schizophrenia when combined with haloperidol and related drugs.358 , 359 Negative symptoms include reduced emotional expression or general activity. The action of glycine in combination with the drugs was greater than the drugs alone, suggesting a synergistic action. Another double-blind study using approximately half the amount in the positive studies could not find any benefit from adding glycine to antipsychotic drug therapy.360 Patients with low blood levels of glycine appeared to improve the most when given glycine in addition to their antipsychotic drugs.361 No side effects were noticed in these studies, even when more than 30 grams of glycine were given daily.

  • Imipramine

    Combination of 6 grams per day L-tryptophan and 1,500 mg per day niacinamide (a form of vitamin B3) with imipramine has shown to be more effective than imipramine alone for people with bipolar disorder .404 These levels did not improve the effects of imipramine in people with depression . Lower amounts (4 grams per day of L-tryptophan and 1,000 mg per day of niacinamide) did show some tendency to enhance the effect of imipramine.

    The importance of the amount of L-tryptophan was confirmed in other studies, suggesting that if too much L-tryptophan (6 grams per day) is used, it is not beneficial, while levels around 4 grams per day may make tricyclic antidepressants work better.405 , 406

  • Lithium

    A small double-blind study found that combining 2–4 grams three times per day of L-tryptophan with lithium significantly improved symptoms in people with bipolar disorder or a mild form of schizophrenia.436 L-tryptophan is only available from doctors. It should be taken several hours before or after meals.

  • Lomustine

    Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.445 , 446 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,447 , 448 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

    Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.449 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,450 but not all,451 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.452

    One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.453 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.454 , 455

    Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.456

  • Nortriptyline

    Combination of 6 grams per day L-tryptophan and 1,500 mg per day niacinamide (a form of vitamin B3) with imipramine has shown to be more effective than imipramine alone for people with bipolar disorder .524 These levels did not improve the effects of imipramine in people with depression . Lower amounts (4 grams per day of L-tryptophan and 1,000 mg per day of niacinamide) did show some tendency to enhance the effect of imipramine.

    The importance of the amount of L-tryptophan was confirmed in other studies, suggesting that if too much L-tryptophan (6 grams per day) is used, it is not beneficial, while levels around 4 grams per day may make tricyclic antidepressants work better.525 , 526

  • Olanzapine

    In a small double-blind study, people with schizophrenia being treated with olanzapine experienced an improvement in their symptoms when glycine was added to their treatment regimen.527 The initial amount of glycine used was 4 grams per day; this was increased gradually over a period of 10 to 17 days to a maximum of 0.8 grams per 2.2 pounds of body weight per day.

  • Protriptyline

    Combination of 6 grams per day L-tryptophan and 1,500 mg per day niacinamide (a form of vitamin B3) with imipramine has shown to be more effective than imipramine alone for people with bipolar disorder .577 These levels did not improve the effects of imipramine in people with depression . Lower amounts (4 grams per day of L-tryptophan and 1,000 mg per day of niacinamide) did show some tendency to enhance the effect of imipramine.

    The importance of the amount of L-tryptophan was confirmed in other studies, suggesting that if too much L-tryptophan (6 grams per day) is used, it is not beneficial, while levels around 4 grams per day may make tricyclic antidepressants work better.578 , 579

  • Risperidone

    In a small double-blind study, people with schizophrenia being treated with risperidone experienced an improvement in their symptoms when glycine was added to their treatment regimen.581 The initial amount of glycine used was 4 grams per day; this was increased gradually over a period of 10 to 17 days to a maximum of 0.8 grams per 2.2 pounds of body weight per day.

  • Selegiline

    Both L-tryptophan and 5-HTP have been used to treat depression . One controlled study showed that taking selegiline at the same time as 5-HTP enhanced the antidepressant effect when compared with 5-HTP alone.582 Further research is needed to determine whether taking selegiline and 5-HTP together might result in unwanted side effects.

  • Trimipramine

    Combination of 6 grams per day L-tryptophan and 1,500 mg per day niacinamide (a form of vitamin B3) with imipramine has shown to be more effective than imipramine alone for people with bipolar disorder .621 These levels did not improve the effects of imipramine in people with depression . Lower amounts (4 grams per day of L-tryptophan and 1,000 mg per day of niacinamide) did show some tendency to enhance the effect of imipramine.

    The importance of the amount of L-tryptophan was confirmed in other studies, suggesting that if too much L-tryptophan (6 grams per day) is used, it is not beneficial, while levels around 4 grams per day may make tricyclic antidepressants work better.622 , 623

Reduces Effectiveness

  • Clozapine

    The use of glycine may interfere with the efficacy of clozapine as an antipsychotic drug. In a double-blind trial, people with chronic, treatment-resistant schizophrenia were given clozapine (400–1,200 mg per day) and either glycine (30 g per day) or placebo for 12 weeks.693 The combination of clozapine and glycine was not effective at decreasing symptoms. In contrast, participants who took clozapine without glycine had a 35% reduction in some symptoms. Therefore, the combination should be avoided until more is known.

Potential Negative Interaction

  • Almotriptan

    Triptans work by stimulating serotonin receptors in the brain. 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking them with eletriptan could increase eletriptan-induced side effects. However, no interactions have yet been reported with eletriptan and 5-HTP or L-tryptophan.

  • Citalopram

    Citalopram increases serotonin activity in the brain. 5-HTP and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking either of these compounds with citalopram may increase citalopram-induced side effects. Dietary supplements of L-tryptophan (available only by prescription from special compounding pharmacists) taken with paroxetine (a drug that has similar actions as citalopram) caused headache, sweating, dizziness, agitation, restlessness, nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms.692

    Some doctors have used small amounts of L-tryptophan in combination with SSRIs, to increase their effectiveness. However, because of the potential for side effects, 5-HTP and L-tryptophan should never be taken in combination with citalopram or other SSRIs, unless a doctor is closely monitoring the combination. Foods rich in L-tryptophan do not appear to interact with citalopram or other SSRIs.

  • Eletriptan

    Eletriptan works by stimulating serotonin receptors in the brain. 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking them with eletriptan could increase eletriptan-induced side effects. However, no interactions have yet been reported with eletriptan and 5-HTP or L-tryptophan.

  • Escitalopram

    Escitalopram increases serotonin activity in the brain. 5-HTP and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking either of these compounds with escitalopram may increase escitalopram-induced side effects. Dietary supplements of L-tryptophan (available only by prescription from special compounding pharmacists) taken with paroxetine (a drug that has similar actions as escitalopram) caused headache, sweating, dizziness, agitation, restlessness, nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms.694

    Some doctors have used small amounts of L-tryptophan in combination with SSRIs, to increase their effectiveness. However, because of the potential for side effects, 5-HTP and L-tryptophan should never be taken in combination with escitalopram or other SSRIs, unless a doctor is closely monitoring the combination. Foods rich in L-tryptophan do not appear to interact with escitalopram or other SSRIs.

  • Fluoxetine

    L-tryptophan is an amino acid found in protein-rich foods. Foods rich in L-tryptophan are not believed to cause any problems during fluoxetine use. However, dietary supplements of L-tryptophan taken during fluoxetine treatment have been reported to cause headache, sweating, dizziness, agitation, restlessness, nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms.695

  • Fluvoxamine

    Fluvoxamine works by increasing serotonin activity in the brain. 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking them with fluvoxamine may increase fluvoxamine-induced side effects. Until more is known, 5-HTP and L-tryptophan should not be taken with any SSRI drug, including fluvoxamine.

  • Frovatriptan

    Triptans work by stimulating serotonin receptors in the brain. 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking them at the same time as 5-HT1 agonists could increase unwanted side effects. However, at the time of this writing there are no known interactions with 5-HT1 agonists and 5-HTP or L-tryptophan.696

  • Naratriptan

    Triptans work by stimulating serotonin receptors in the brain. 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking them at the same time as 5-HT1 agonists could increase unwanted side effects. However, at the time of this writing there are no known interactions with 5-HT1 agonists and 5-HTP or L-tryptophan.697

  • Paroxetine

    Paroxetine increases serotonin activity in the brain. 5-HTP and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking either of these compounds with paroxetine may increase paroxetine-induced side effects. Dietary supplements of L-tryptophan (available only by prescriptions from special compounding pharmacists) taken with paroxetine caused headache, sweating, dizziness, agitation, restlessness, nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms.698 Some doctors have used small amounts of L-tryptophan in combination with SSRIs, to increase the effectiveness of the latter. However, because of the potential for side effects, 5-HTP and L-tryptophan should never be taken in combination with paroxetine or other SSRIs, unless the combination is being closely monitored by a doctor. Foods rich in L-tryptophan do not appear to interact with paroxtine or other SSRIs.

    On the other hand, the combination of 45 mg DL-tryptophan (a synthetic variation of L-tryptophan) per pound of body weight (a relatively high dose) with zimelidine, a drug with a similar action to paroxetine, did not cause these side effects in another trial.699

  • Rizatriptan

    Triptans work by stimulating serotonin receptors in the brain. 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking them at the same time as 5-HT1 agonists could increase unwanted side effects. However, at the time of this writing there are no known interactions with 5-HT1 agonists and 5-HTP or L-tryptophan.700

  • Sertraline

    Sertraline increases serotonin activity in the brain. 5-HTP and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking either of these compounds with sertraline may increase sertraline-induced side effects.

    In one report, dietary supplements of L-tryptophan (available only by prescriptions from special compounding pharmacists) taken with paroxetine (a drug similar to sertraline) caused headache, sweating, dizziness, agitation, restlessness, nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms.701 On the other hand, the combination of 45 mg DL-tryptophan (a synthetic variation of L-tryptophan) per pound of body weight (a relatively high dose) with zimelidine, a drug with a similar action to sertraline, did not cause these side effects in another trial.702 Some doctors have used small amounts of L-tryptophan in combination with SSRIs, to increase the effectiveness of the latter. However, because of the potential for side effects, 5-HTP and L-tryptophan should never be taken in combination with sertraline or other SSRIs, unless the combination is being closely monitored by a doctor. Foods rich in L-tryptophan do not appear to interact with sertraline or other SSRIs.

  • Sibutramine

    The amino acids L-tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) are occasionally used to treat mental depression . Taking sibutramine with L-tryptophan or 5-HTP might result in a rare, but serious group of symptoms known as “serotonin syndrome.”703 Symptoms associated with serotonin syndrome may include confusion, anxiety, muscle weakness, incoordination, and vomiting. Therefore, individuals taking sibutramine should avoid supplementing with L-tryptophan and 5-HTP.

  • Sumatriptan

    Sumatriptan works by stimulating serotonin receptors in the brain. 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking them with sumatriptan could increase sumatriptan-induced side effects. However, no interactions have yet been reported with sumatriptan and 5-HTP or L-tryptophan.

  • Tramadol

    Tramadol, which blocks serotonin reuptake in the brain, has been associated with two cases of serotonin syndrome.704 , 705 5-HTP and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain. While no interactions have yet been reported with tramadol and 5-HTP or L-tryptophan, taking 5-HTP or L-tryptophan with tramadol may increase the risk of tramadol-induced side effects, including serotonin syndrome.

  • Venlafaxine

    Venlafaxine, a potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has been associated with several cases of serotonin syndrome.706 , 707 , 708 , 709 5-HTP and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking them with venlafaxine may increase venlafaxine-induced side effects. While no interactions with venlafaxine and 5-HTP or L-tryptophan have been reported, until more is known, people taking venlafaxine are cautioned to avoid 5-HTP or L-tryptophan.

  • Zolmitriptan

    Zolmitriptan works by stimulating serotonin receptors in the brain. 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking them with zolmitriptan could increase zolmitriptan-induced side effects. However, no interactions have yet been reported with zolmitriptan and 5-HTP or L-tryptophan.

  • Zolpidem

    Nine cases of zolpidem-induced hallucinations associated with serotonin reuptake inhibiting antidepressants have been reported, some lasting for several hours.710 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking them with zolpidem may increase zolpidem-induced hallucinations, though no interactions have yet been reported with zolpidem and 5-HTP or L-tryptophan.

Explanation Required

  • Allopurinol

    People who have Duchenne muscular dystrophy have low levels of L-carnitine in their muscles. Allopurinol restores L-carnitine to normal levels, resulting in improved muscle strength.711 Whether L-carnitine supplementation might improve this effect of allopurinol has not been investigated.

  • Clorazepate

    Test tube studies show that L-tryptophan and clorazepate dipotassium interact in the blood in such a way that the actions of the drug may be enhanced when high amounts of L-tryptophan are ingested.712 Controlled research is needed to determine the significance of this interaction and to investigate possible interactions between clorazepate and 5-hydroxytryptophan , a supplement related to L-tryptophan.

  • Gabapentin

    Several controlled and preliminary studies showed that multiple drug therapy for seizures results in dramatic reductions in blood carnitine levels.713 , 714 , 715 Further controlled research is needed to determine whether children taking anticonvulsants might benefit by supplementing with L-carnitine, since current studies yield conflicting results. For example, one controlled study indicated that children taking valproic acid and carbamazepine received no benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.716 However, another small study revealed that children taking valproic acid experienced less fatigue and excessive sleepiness following L-carnitine supplementation.717 Despite the lack of well-controlled studies, individuals who are taking anticonvulsants and experiencing side effects might benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.

  • Paclitaxel

    Glutathione , the main antioxidant found within cells, is frequently depleted in individuals on chemotherapy and/or radiation. Preliminary studies have found that intravenously injected glutathione may decrease some of the adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiation, such as diarrhea .718

  • Polifeprosan 20 with Carmustine

    High-dose cisplatin chemotherapy is associated with kidney toxicity and damage, which may be reduced by glutathione administration.719 , 720 , 721 , 722 Nerve damage is another frequent complication of high amounts of cisplatin. Preliminary evidence has shown that glutathione injections may protect nerve tissue during cisplatin therapy without reducing cisplatin’s anti-tumor activity.723 , 724 , 725 There is no evidence that glutathione taken by mouth has the same benefits.

  • Valproate

    Valproic acid causes depletion of carnitine in children,726 and blood carnitine levels are often low in people taking valproic acid for long periods of time. While there have been several case reports of valproic acid-related carnitine deficiency causing abdominal pain in children, there is controversy about the need for carnitine supplements in children taking valproic acid.727 , 728

    Complete disappearance of severe valproic acid-induced abdominal pain was achieved in one child with intractable epilepsy immediately following the introduction of 300 mg per day of L-carnitine .729 Carnitine supplementation (50 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight) has protected children from valproic acid-induced increases in blood ammonia levels in some research,730 though other published work has questioned whether the depletion of carnitine and the increase in blood ammonia levels (both caused by valproic acid) are actually related to each other.731 This last report found that the depletion of carnitine was significantly more severe when epileptics were taking valproic acid together with other anti-seizure medications. A double-blind, crossover study found that carnitine supplementation (100 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight) was no more effective than placebo in improving the sense of well-being in children treated with valproic acid.732 To date, the question of whether carnitine supplementation is beneficial for people taking valproic acid remains unresolved.733 However, a panel of pediatric neurologists and experts on L-carnitine supplementation strongly recommended oral L-carnitine supplementation for all infants and children taking valproic acid, as well as for adults with carnitine deficiency syndromes, people with valproic acid-induced liver and kidney toxicity, people on kidney dialysis, and premature infants on total parenteral nutrition (intravenous feeding). The panel recommended an amount of 100 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight per day, up to a maximum of 2 grams per day.734

The Drug-Nutrient Interactions table may not include every possible interaction. Taking medicines with meals, on an empty stomach, or with alcohol may influence their effects. For details, refer to the manufacturers’ package information as these are not covered in this table. If you take medications, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.

Side Effects

Side Effects

Many Western diets provide more protein than the body needs, causing excess nitrogen to be excreted as urea in urine. The excess nitrogen has been linked in some studies with reduced kidney function in old age. Some, but not all studies have found that when people have impaired kidney function, restricting dietary intake of protein slows the rate of decline of kidney function.735

Excessive protein intake also can increase excretion of calcium , and some evidence has linked high-protein diets with osteoporosis ,736 particularly regarding animal protein.737 On the other hand, some protein is needed for bone formation. A double-blind study showed that elderly people whose diets provided slightly less than the recommended amount of protein suffered less bone loss if they consumed an additional 20 grams of protein per day.738 A doctor can help people assess their protein intake and needs.

Amino acids include several different nutrients, each of which has the potential for side effects. Look up the unique side effects for each and discuss the potential benefits and risks with your doctor or pharmacist:

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23. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

24. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

25. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

26. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

27. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

28. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

29. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

30. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

31. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

32. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

33. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

34. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

35. Daniele B, Perrone F, Gallo C, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of fluorouracil induced intestinal toxicity: a double blind, placebo controlled, randomised trial. Gut 2001;48:28-33.

36. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

37. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

38. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

39. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

40. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

41. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

42. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

43. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

44. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

45. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

46. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

47. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

48. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

49. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

50. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

51. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

52. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

53. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

54. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

55. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

56. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

57. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

58. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

59. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

60. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

61. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

62. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

63. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

64. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

65. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

66. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

67. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

68. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

69. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

70. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

71. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

72. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

73. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

74. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

75. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

76. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

77. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

78. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

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82. Freeman JM, Vining EPG, Cost S, Singhi P. Does carnitine administration improve the symptoms attributed to anticonvulsant medications?: A double-blinded, crossover study. Pediatrics 1994;93:893-5.

83. Van Wouwe JP. Carnitine deficiency during valproic acid treatment. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65:211-4.

84. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

85. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

86. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

87. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

88. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

89. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

90. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

91. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

92. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

93. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

94. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

95. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

96. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

97. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

98. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

99. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

100. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

101. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

102. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

103. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

104. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

105. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

106. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

107. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

108. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

109. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

110. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

111. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

112. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

113. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

114. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

115. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

116. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

117. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

118. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

119. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

120. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

121. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

122. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

123. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

124. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

125. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

126. Kim H, Chu K, Jung KH, et al. Acquired encephalopathy associated with carnitine deficiency after cefditoren pivoxil administration. Neurol Sci2012;33:1393–6.

127. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

128. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

129. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

130. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

131. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

132. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

133. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

134. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

135. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

136. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

137. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

138. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

139. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

140. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

141. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

142. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

143. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

144. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

145. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

146. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

147. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

148. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

149. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

150. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

151. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

152. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

153. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

154. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

155. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

156. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

157. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

158. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

159. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

160. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

161. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

162. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

163. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

164. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

165. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

166. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

167. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

168. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

169. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

170. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

171. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

172. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

173. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

174. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

175. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

176. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

177. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

178. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

179. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

180. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

181. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

182. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

183. Chouinard G, Young SN, Annable L, Sourkes TL. Tryptophan-nicotinamide, imipramine and their combination in depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1979;59:395-414.

184. Walinder J, Skott A, Carlsson A, et al. Potentiation of the antidepressant action of clomipramine by tryptophan. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1976;33:1384-9.

185. Shaw DM, MacSweeney DA, Hewland R, Johnson AL. Tricyclic antidepressants and tryptophan in unipolar depression. Psychol Med 1975;5:276-8.

186. Meltzer HY. Clinical studies on the mechanism of action of clozapine: the dopamine-serotonin hypothesis of schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology 1989;99 Suppl:S18-27 (Berlin).

187. Nobile MT, Vidili MG, Benasso M, et al. A preliminary clinical study of cyclophosphamide with reduced glutathione as uroprotector. Tumori 1989;75:257-8.

188. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

189. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

190. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

191. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

192. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

193. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

194. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

195. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

196. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

197. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

198. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

199. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

200. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

201. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

202. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

203. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

204. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

205. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

206. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

207. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

208. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

209. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

210. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

211. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

212. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

213. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

214. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

215. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

216. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

217. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

218. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

219. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

220. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

221. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

222. Chouinard G, Young SN, Annable L, Sourkes TL. Tryptophan-nicotinamide, imipramine and their combination in depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1979;59:395-414.

223. Walinder J, Skott A, Carlsson A, et al. Potentiation of the antidepressant action of clomipramine by tryptophan. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1976;33:1384-9.

224. Shaw DM, MacSweeney DA, Hewland R, Johnson AL. Tricyclic antidepressants and tryptophan in unipolar depression. Psychol Med 1975;5:276-8.

225. Davies NM, Anderson KE. Clinical pharmacokinetics of diclofenac. Therapeutic insights and pitfalls. Clin Pharmacokinet 1997;33:184-213.

226. Famularo G, Moretti S, Marcellini S, et al. Acetyl-carnitine deficiency in AIDS patients with neurotoxicity on treatment with antiretroviral nucleoside analogues. AIDS 1997;11:185-90.

227. Hart AM, Wilson AD, Montovani C, et al. Acetyl-l-carnitine: a pathogenesis based treatment for HIV-associated antiretroviral toxic neuropathy. AIDS2004;18:1549-60.

228. Herzmann C, Johnson MA, Youle M. Long-term effect of acetyl-L-carnitine for antiretroviral toxic neuropathy. HIV Clin Trials 2005;6:344-50.

229. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

230. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

231. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

232. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

233. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

234. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

235. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

236. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

237. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

238. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

239. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

240. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

241. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

242. Chouinard G, Young SN, Annable L, Sourkes TL. Tryptophan-nicotinamide, imipramine and their combination in depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1979;59:395-414.

243. Walinder J, Skott A, Carlsson A, et al. Potentiation of the antidepressant action of clomipramine by tryptophan. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1976;33:1384-9.

244. Shaw DM, MacSweeney DA, Hewland R, Johnson AL. Tricyclic antidepressants and tryptophan in unipolar depression. Psychol Med 1975;5:276-8.

245. Alberts DS, Peng Y-M, Moon TE, Bressler R. Carnitine prevention of adriamycin toxicity in mice. Biomedicine 1978;29:265-8.

246. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

247. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

248. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

249. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

250. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

251. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

252. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

253. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

254. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

255. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

256. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

257. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

258. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

259. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

260. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

261. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

262. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

263. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

264. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

265. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

266. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

267. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

268. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

269. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

270. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

271. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

272. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

273. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

274. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

275. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

276. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

277. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

278. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

279. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

280. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

281. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

282. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

283. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

284. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

285. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

286. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

287. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

288. Hiraoka A, Arato T, Tominaga I. Reduction in blood free carnitine levels in association with changes in sodium valproate (VPA) disposition in epileptic patients treated with VPA and other anti-epileptic drugs. Biol Pharm Bull 1997;20:91-3.

289. Morita J, Yuge K, Yoshino M. Hypocarnitinemia in the handicapped individuals who receive a polypharmacy of antiepileptic drugs. Neuropediatrics 1986;17:203-5.

290. Hug G, McGraw CA, Bates SR, Landrigan EA. Reduction of serum carnitine concentrations during anticonvulsant therapy with phenobarbitol, valproic acid, phenytoin and carbamazepine in children. J Pedr 1991;119:799-802.

291. Freeman JM, Vining EPG, Cost S, Singhi P. Does carnitine administration improve the symptoms attributed to anticonvulsant medications?: A double-blinded, crossover study. Pediatrics 1994;93:893-5.

292. Van Wouwe JP. Carnitine deficiency during valproic acid treatment. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65:211-4.

293. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

294. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

295. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

296. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

297. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

298. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

299. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

300. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

301. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

302. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

303. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

304. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

305. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

306. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

307. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

308. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

309. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

310. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

311. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

312. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

313. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

314. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

315. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

316. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

317. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

318. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

319. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

320. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

321. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

322. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

323. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

324. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

325. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

326. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

327. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

328. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

329. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

330. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

331. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

332. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

333. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

334. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

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343. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

344. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

345. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

346. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

347. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

348. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

349. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

350. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

351. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

352. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

353. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

354. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

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362. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

363. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

364. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

365. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

366. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

367. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

368. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

369. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

370. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

371. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

372. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

373. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

374. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

375. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

376. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

377. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

378. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

379. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

380. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

381. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

382. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

383. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

384. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

385. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

386. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

387. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

388. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

389. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

390. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

391. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

392. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

393. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

394. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

395. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

396. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

397. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

398. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

399. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

400. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

401. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

402. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

403. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

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410. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

411. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

412. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

413. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

414. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

415. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

416. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

417. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

418. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

419. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

420. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

421. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

422. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

423. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

424. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

425. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

426. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

427. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

428. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

429. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

430. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

431. Hiraoka A, Arato T, Tominaga I. Reduction in blood free carnitine levels in association with changes in sodium valproate (VPA) disposition in epileptic patients treated with VPA and other anti-epileptic drugs. Biol Pharm Bull 1997;20:91-3.

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437. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

438. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

439. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

440. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

441. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

442. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

443. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

444. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

445. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

446. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

447. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

448. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

449. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

450. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

451. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

452. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

453. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

454. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

455. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

456. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

457. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

458. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

459. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

460. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

461. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

462. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

463. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

464. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

465. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

466. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

467. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

468. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

469. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

470. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

471. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

472. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

473. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

474. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

475. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

476. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

477. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

478. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

479. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

480. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

481. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

482. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

483. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

484. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

485. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

486. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

487. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

488. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

489. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

490. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

491. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

492. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

493. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

494. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

495. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

496. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

497. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

498. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

499. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

500. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

501. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

502. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

503. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

504. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

505. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

506. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

507. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

508. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

509. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

510. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

511. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

512. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

513. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

514. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

515. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

516. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

517. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

518. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

519. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

520. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

521. De Maria D, Falchi AM, Venturino P. Adjuvant radiotherapy of the pelvis with or without reduced glutathione: a randomized trial in patients operated on for endometrial cancer. Tumori 1992;78:374-6.

522. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

523. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

524. Chouinard G, Young SN, Annable L, Sourkes TL. Tryptophan-nicotinamide, imipramine and their combination in depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1979;59:395-414.

525. Walinder J, Skott A, Carlsson A, et al. Potentiation of the antidepressant action of clomipramine by tryptophan. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1976;33:1384-9.

526. Shaw DM, MacSweeney DA, Hewland R, Johnson AL. Tricyclic antidepressants and tryptophan in unipolar depression. Psychol Med 1975;5:276-8.

527. Heresco-Levy U, Ermilov M, Lichtenberg P, et al. High-dose glycine added to olanzapine and risperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 2004;55:165-71.

528. Hiraoka A, Arato T, Tominaga I. Reduction in blood free carnitine levels in association with changes in sodium valproate (VPA) disposition in epileptic patients treated with VPA and other anti-epileptic drugs. Biol Pharm Bull 1997;20:91-3.

529. Morita J, Yuge K, Yoshino M. Hypocarnitinemia in the handicapped individuals who receive a polypharmacy of antiepileptic drugs. Neuropediatrics 1986;17:203-5.

530. Hug G, McGraw CA, Bates SR, Landrigan EA. Reduction of serum carnitine concentrations during anticonvulsant therapy with phenobarbitol, valproic acid, phenytoin and carbamazepine in children. J Pedr 1991;119:799-802.

531. Freeman JM, Vining EPG, Cost S, Singhi P. Does carnitine administration improve the symptoms attributed to anticonvulsant medications?: A double-blinded, crossover study. Pediatrics 1994;93:893-5.

532. Van Wouwe JP. Carnitine deficiency during valproic acid treatment. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65:211-4.

533. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

534. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

535. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

536. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

537. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

538. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

539. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

540. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

541. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

542. Vahdat L, Papadopoulos K, Lange D, et al. Reduction of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy with glutamine. Clin Cancer Res 2001;7:1192-7.

543. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

544. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

545. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

546. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

547. Savarese D, Boucher J, Corey B. Glutamine treatment of paclitaxel-induced myalgias and arthralgias. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:3918-9 [letter].

548. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

549. Boyle FM, Monk R, Davey R, et al. Prevention of experimental paclitaxel neuropathy with glutamate. Proc AACR 1996;37:290 [abstract].

550. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

551. Malaguarnera M, Vacante M, Giordano M, et al. L-carnitine supplementation improves hematological pattern in patients affected by HCV treated with Peg interferon-alpha 2b plus ribavirin. World J Gastroenterol 2011;17:4414-20.

552. Malaguarnera M, Vacante M, Giordano M, et al. L-carnitine supplementation improves hematological pattern in patients affected by HCV treated with Peg interferon-alpha 2b plus ribavirin. World J Gastroenterol 2011;17:4414-20.

553. Hiraoka A, Arato T, Tominaga I. Reduction in blood free carnitine levels in association with changes in sodium valproate (VPA) disposition in epileptic patients treated with VPA and other anti-epileptic drugs. Biol Pharm Bull 1997;20:91-3.

554. Morita J, Yuge K, Yoshino M. Hypocarnitinemia in the handicapped individuals who receive a polypharmacy of antiepileptic drugs. Neuropediatrics 1986;17:203-5.

555. Hug G, McGraw CA, Bates SR, Landrigan EA. Reduction of serum carnitine concentrations during anticonvulsant therapy with phenobarbitol, valproic acid, phenytoin and carbamazepine in children. J Pedr 1991;119:799-802.

556. Freeman JM, Vining EPG, Cost S, Singhi P. Does carnitine administration improve the symptoms attributed to anticonvulsant medications?: A double-blinded, crossover study. Pediatrics 1994;93:893-5.

557. Van Wouwe JP. Carnitine deficiency during valproic acid treatment. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65:211-4.

558. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

559. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

560. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

561. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

562. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

563. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

564. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

565. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

566. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

567. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

568. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

569. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

570. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

571. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

572. Hiraoka A, Arato T, Tominaga I. Reduction in blood free carnitine levels in association with changes in sodium valproate (VPA) disposition in epileptic patients treated with VPA and other anti-epileptic drugs. Biol Pharm Bull 1997;20:91-3.

573. Morita J, Yuge K, Yoshino M. Hypocarnitinemia in the handicapped individuals who receive a polypharmacy of antiepileptic drugs. Neuropediatrics 1986;17:203-5.

574. Hug G, McGraw CA, Bates SR, Landrigan EA. Reduction of serum carnitine concentrations during anticonvulsant therapy with phenobarbitol, valproic acid, phenytoin and carbamazepine in children. J Pedr 1991;119:799-802.

575. Freeman JM, Vining EPG, Cost S, Singhi P. Does carnitine administration improve the symptoms attributed to anticonvulsant medications?: A double-blinded, crossover study. Pediatrics 1994;93:893-5.

576. Van Wouwe JP. Carnitine deficiency during valproic acid treatment. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65:211-4.

577. Chouinard G, Young SN, Annable L, Sourkes TL. Tryptophan-nicotinamide, imipramine and their combination in depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1979;59:395-414.

578. Walinder J, Skott A, Carlsson A, et al. Potentiation of the antidepressant action of clomipramine by tryptophan. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1976;33:1384-9.

579. Shaw DM, MacSweeney DA, Hewland R, Johnson AL. Tricyclic antidepressants and tryptophan in unipolar depression. Psychol Med 1975;5:276-8.

580. Malaguarnera M, Vacante M, Giordano M, et al. L-carnitine supplementation improves hematological pattern in patients affected by HCV treated with Peg interferon-alpha 2b plus ribavirin. World J Gastroenterol 2011;17:4414-20.

581. Heresco-Levy U, Ermilov M, Lichtenberg P, et al. High-dose glycine added to olanzapine and risperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 2004;55:165-71.

582. Mendlewicz J, Youdim MB. Antidepressant potentiation of 5-hydroxytryptophan by L-deprenil in affective illness. J Affect Disord 1980;2:137-46.

583. Famularo G, Moretti S, Marcellini S, et al. Acetyl-carnitine deficiency in AIDS patients with neurotoxicity on treatment with antiretroviral nucleoside analogues. AIDS 1997;11:185-90.

584. Hart AM, Wilson AD, Montovani C, et al. Acetyl-l-carnitine: a pathogenesis based treatment for HIV-associated antiretroviral toxic neuropathy. AIDS2004;18:1549-60.

585. Herzmann C, Johnson MA, Youle M. Long-term effect of acetyl-L-carnitine for antiretroviral toxic neuropathy. HIV Clin Trials 2005;6:344-50.

586. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

587. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

588. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

589. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

590. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

591. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

592. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

593. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

594. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

595. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

596. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

597. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

598. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

599. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

600. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

601. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

602. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

603. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

604. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

605. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

606. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

607. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

608. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

609. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

610. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

611. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

612. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

613. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

614. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

615. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

616. Hiraoka A, Arato T, Tominaga I. Reduction in blood free carnitine levels in association with changes in sodium valproate (VPA) disposition in epileptic patients treated with VPA and other anti-epileptic drugs. Biol Pharm Bull 1997;20:91-3.

617. Morita J, Yuge K, Yoshino M. Hypocarnitinemia in the handicapped individuals who receive a polypharmacy of antiepileptic drugs. Neuropediatrics 1986;17:203-5.

618. Hug G, McGraw CA, Bates SR, Landrigan EA. Reduction of serum carnitine concentrations during anticonvulsant therapy with phenobarbitol, valproic acid, phenytoin and carbamazepine in children. J Pedr 1991;119:799-802.

619. Freeman JM, Vining EPG, Cost S, Singhi P. Does carnitine administration improve the symptoms attributed to anticonvulsant medications?: A double-blinded, crossover study. Pediatrics 1994;93:893-5.

620. Van Wouwe JP. Carnitine deficiency during valproic acid treatment. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65:211-4.

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625. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

626. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

627. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

628. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

629. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

630. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

631. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

632. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

633. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

634. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

635. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

636. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

637. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

638. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

639. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

640. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

641. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

642. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

643. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

644. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

645. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

646. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

647. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

648. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

649. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

650. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

651. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

652. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

653. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

654. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

655. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

656. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

657. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

658. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

659. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

660. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

661. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

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663. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

664. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

665. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

666. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

667. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

668. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

669. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

670. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

671. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

672. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

673. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

674. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

675. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

676. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

677. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

678. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

679. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

680. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

681. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

682. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

683. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

684. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

685. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

686. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

687. Hiraoka A, Arato T, Tominaga I. Reduction in blood free carnitine levels in association with changes in sodium valproate (VPA) disposition in epileptic patients treated with VPA and other anti-epileptic drugs. Biol Pharm Bull 1997;20:91-3.

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690. Freeman JM, Vining EPG, Cost S, Singhi P. Does carnitine administration improve the symptoms attributed to anticonvulsant medications?: A double-blinded, crossover study. Pediatrics 1994;93:893-5.

691. Van Wouwe JP. Carnitine deficiency during valproic acid treatment. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65:211-4.

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714. Morita J, Yuge K, Yoshino M. Hypocarnitinemia in the handicapped individuals who receive a polypharmacy of antiepileptic drugs. Neuropediatrics 1986;17:203-5.

715. Hug G, McGraw CA, Bates SR, Landrigan EA. Reduction of serum carnitine concentrations during anticonvulsant therapy with phenobarbitol, valproic acid, phenytoin and carbamazepine in children. J Pedr 1991;119:799-802.

716. Freeman JM, Vining EPG, Cost S, Singhi P. Does carnitine administration improve the symptoms attributed to anticonvulsant medications?: A double-blinded, crossover study. Pediatrics 1994;93:893-5.

717. Van Wouwe JP. Carnitine deficiency during valproic acid treatment. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65:211-4.

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720. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

721. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

722. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

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724. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

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