Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors for Type 2 Diabetes
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How they work
Acarbose and miglitol help keep blood sugar levels within a target range by slowing the digestion of complex carbohydrates , also called starches. Complex carbohydrates include foods like bread, cereal, grain, pasta, rice, flour, beans, and vegetables like potatoes and corn. These medicines do not change the effect that simple sugars have on blood sugar. Simple sugars include foods like fruit, juice, milk, honey, desserts, and candy.
The medicine is taken with the first bite of food. These medicines do not cause the pancreas to produce more insulin. They will not cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) unless they are used with other oral medicines for diabetes or with insulin .
Why they are used
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors help people with type 2 diabetes whose blood sugar is highest after eating complex carbohydrates.
The medicine may be used alone, with another medicine for diabetes, or with insulin.
How well they work
Type 2 diabetes is a disease that can get worse over time, so medicines may need to change. Diabetes medicines work best for people who are being active and eating healthy foods.
When taken with the first bite of food, these medicines have been found to lower blood sugar levels in people who have high blood sugar after eating (postprandial hyperglycemia).
All medicines have side effects. But many people don't feel the side effects, or they are able to deal with them. Ask your pharmacist about the side effects of each medicine you take. Side effects are also listed in the information that comes with your medicine.
Here are some important things to think about:
- Usually the benefits of the medicine are more important than any minor side effects.
- Side effects may go away after you take the medicine for a while.
- If side effects still bother you and you wonder if you should keep taking the medicine, call your doctor. He or she may be able to lower your dose or change your medicine. Do not suddenly quit taking your medicine unless your doctor tells you to.
Call 911 or other emergency services right away if you have:
- Trouble breathing.
- Swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Call your doctor if you have:
- Yellow eyes.
- Yellow skin.
Common side effects of this medicine include:
- Passing of gas.
- Feeling bloated.
- Belly pain.
See Drug Reference for a full list of side effects. (Drug Reference is not available in all systems.)
What to think about
These medicines do not cause low blood sugar or weight gain, but you might have low blood sugar if you don't eat or if you exercise, drink alcohol, or use another medicine that causes low blood sugar. When taking this medicine, low blood sugar can be treated with quick-sugar foods except table sugar or regular soda pop, which will not work.
If you pass a lot of gas while taking this medicine, your doctor may suggest a lower dose and then increase the dose slowly. Eating a lower-carbohydrate diet can also help. If you have problems with your digestive system, you might not be able to take this medicine.
Medicine is one of the many tools your doctor has to treat a health problem. Taking medicine as your doctor suggests will improve your health and may prevent future problems. If you don't take your medicines properly, you may be putting your health (and perhaps your life) at risk.
There are many reasons why people have trouble taking their medicine. But in most cases, there is something you can do. For suggestions on how to work around common problems, see the topic Taking Medicines as Prescribed.
Advice for women
If you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning to get pregnant, do not use any medicines unless your doctor tells you to. Some medicines can harm your baby. This includes prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, herbs, and supplements. And make sure that all your doctors know that you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning to get pregnant.
Follow-up care is a key part of your treatment and safety. Be sure to make and go to all appointments, and call your doctor if you are having problems. It's also a good idea to know your test results and keep a list of the medicines you take.
Primary Medical Reviewer E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine
Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine
Kathleen Romito, MD - Family Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer Theresa O'Young, PharmD - Clinical Pharmacy
David C.W. Lau, MD, PhD, FRCPC - Endocrinology
Current as ofJune 23, 2016