Adenomyosis is a condition that occurs when the cells that normally
line the uterus grow into the muscular tissue of the uterine wall. Most
women who have adenomyosis have no symptoms. But it can cause heavy or prolonged
menstrual periods (menorrhagia), painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea), and
menstrual cramping that gradually gets worse from one period to the next.
The cause of adenomyosis is not fully understood. Some experts
believe that it is the result of damage to the inner wall of the uterus during
pregnancy, childbirth, or a surgical procedure. Symptoms can get worse with use of
birth control pills. And symptoms can improve after menopause.
Adenomyosis pain and bleeding can be treated with nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), a levonorgestrel intrauterine device (IUD),
or in severe cases, removal of the uterus (hysterectomy).